Tuesday, November 13, 2007

Juwairiyyah Binti Al-Harith.

Juwairiyyah Binti Al-Harith.
   In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful;
All the praise and Thanks are due to Allāh, the Lord of the al-ā’lamīn. I testify that there is none worthy of worship except Allāh, and that Muhammad, sallallāhu alayhi wa sallam, is His Messenger.

The daughter of Al-Harith Ibn Dhirar of Banu Al-Mustaliq

Juwairiyyah binti Al-Harith (radiallāhu`anha) became as a prisoner to the Muslims during the battle of Banu’l-Mustalaq, and she later went to the Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alaihi wa sallam)  to seek his help to ransomed her and buy her freedom. He offered to buy her freedom and marry her, and she accepted. The Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alaihi wa sallam)   then married her and made her manumission her dowry. When the people came to know of that, they set free their own prisoners, so as to honour the in-laws of the Messenger (Sallallāhu 'alaihi wa sallam)  . No woman brought a greater blessing to her people than she did. [Sirah Ibn Hisham, 3/408-409].

The fifth year of Hijrah was a year full of major events. During its second half, the Muslims were busy fighting the coalition of the tribes that rallied against them in an attempt to impede the spread of Islam.

Muslims dug a trench around Al-Madinah to defend it against the enemies outside. But a greater danger was facing them from inside, that of the Jewish tribes who breached the peace treaty. After defeating the parties, the Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alaihi wa sallam)   rallied the Muslims first against the Jewish tribe of Banu An-Nadir. They blockaded their fortress for twenty-five days but later they surrendered.

Then the Muslims set off towards the tribe of Banu Al-Mustaliq who were gathering forces to fight them. The two armies met at a watering well called Al-Muraisik. A fierce battle took place which ended with a heavy defeat of Banu Al-Mustaliq. Most of their fighters fell and their women were taken captives.

Their leader, Al-Harith Ibn Dhirar, escaped, but his daughter, Barrah, fell to the hands of the Muslims captive. The daughter of Al-Harith fell to the lot of Thabit Ibn Qais.

‘Aishah (radiallāhu`anha) who accompanied the Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alaihi wa sallam)   on this expedition, related, "When the Prophet distributed the captives of Banu Al-Mustaliq, she [Barrah] fell to the lot of Thabit Ibn Qais (radiallāhu`anhu). She was married to her cousin, who was killed during the battle. She gave Thabit a deed (document), agreeing to pay him for her freedom. She was a very beautiful woman. She captivated every man who saw her.

She came to the Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alaihi wa sallam)   to ask for his help in the matter. As soon as I saw her at the door of my room, I took a dislike to her, for I knew that he would see her as I saw her. She went in and told him who she was, the daughter of Al-Harith Ibn Dhirar, and the chief of his people.

She said, 'You can see the state to which I have been brought. I have fallen to the lot of Thabit, and have given him a deed for my ransom, and I have come to ask your help in the matter.'

Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alaihi wa sallam)  said, 'Would you like something better than that? I will discharge your debt, and marry you.' She said: 'Yes, O Messenger of Allah!' 'Then it is done.' He replied." [Ahmad]

The news of the marriage spread fast and now that Banu Al-Mustaliq was the Prophet's relatives by marriage, the Muslims freed them from their captives. "The relatives of the Messenger of Allah!" They exclaimed. A hundred families were released from captivity because of this blessed marriage. ‘Aishah said: “I do not know a woman who was a greater blessing to her people than she."

Juwairiyyah (radiallāhu`anha) was a woman of exceptional beauty, and because she belonged to the highest class of her society, she acquired the best upbringing and education that was available during her time. She was twenty years old when the Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alaihi wa sallam)   married her. No doubt, she was the source of jealousy for his other wives but this did not prevent them from appreciating her good character and companionship.

When the Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alaihi wa sallam)   went back to Al-Madinah after that raid [on Banu Al-Mustaliq], with Juwairiyyah and was at a place called 'Thatul-Jaish', he entrusted her to one of the Ansar. Her father, Al-Harith, discovered that she had been captive and went back to Al-Madinah, bringing his daughter's ransom. When he reached Al-'Aqeq [a place near Al-Madinah], he looked at the camels he had brought as her ransom and admired two of them greatly, so he hid them in one of the passes of Al-'Alee.

Then Al-Harith came to the Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alaihi wa sallam)   dragging the camels behind him, and told him: "My daughter is too noble to be taken as a captive. Set her free by this ransom."

The Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alaihi wa sallam)   replied, "Isn't it better that we let her choose for herself?"

Al-Harith said, "That is fair enough,”

He came to his daughter, Barrah and said, "This man is letting you choose so do not dishonor us!"

Barrah replied calmly, "I choose the Messenger of Allah,"

"What a disgrace!" Al-Harith exclaimed.

But when The Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alaihi wa sallam)   asked him, "Where are the two camels which you have hidden in Al-'Aqeq in such-and such a pass?"

Al-Harith exclaimed, "I bear witness that there is none worthy of worship but Allah, and that you Muhammad are the Messenger of Allah! For none could have known of this but Allah."

He and his two sons who were with him and some of his men accepted Islam. The Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alaihi wa sallam)   asked him again for his daughter's hand and he accepted. The Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alaihi wa sallam)   gave his new bride four hundred Dirhams as her dowry. This was the event that turned Barrah's, later named Juwairiyyah by the Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alaihi wa sallam). For not only she accepted Islam, but by accepting the Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alaihi wa sallam)   for her husband and thus became Umm Al-Mu'minin [Mother of the Believers].

Juwairiyyah (radiallāhu`anha) accepted Islam wholeheartedly and followed the excellent example of her husband in the worship of her Lord, trying to even compete with him at times. He left her room once for Fajar [dawn prayer] and came back after Dhuha [forenoon], when the Prophet asked her, she told him, "I spent all the time you were absent supplicating,"

The Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alaihi wa sallam)   said: "Shall I tell you a few words; if you say them they will be heavier in the scale [on the Day of Judgment] than what you have done? You say: 'Subhana Allahi 'adada khalqih, subhana Allahi ridha nafsihi, subhana Allahi midada kalimatih." [Exalted and Praised is Allah as many times as the number of His creatures, and as much as pleases Him, and as much as the weight of His Throne, and as much as the ink for His Words]. [At-Tirmidzi]

Juwayriyyah (radiallāhu`anha) spent her life in seclusion after the Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alaihi wa sallam)  passed away. The Caliphs would provide for her sustenance, but she would spend it all for the sake of Allah. She performed Hajj many times, and was known for her passionate worship.

She kept away from all the trials that raged later during her life. She died during the caliphate of Mu’awiyah at the age of sixty five, some forty years after the Prophet (Sallallā
hu 'alaihi wa sallam)  .

Allah Knows Best

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