The Solāt of Eidul Adha
In the Name of Allāh, Most Gracious, Most Merciful;
All praise and thanks are due to Allāh, and May Allāh blessings and peace be upon His Messenger.
At the end of the Hajj, Muslims throughout the world celebrate the holiday of Eid al-Adha [Festival of Sacrifice]. On this occasion two important rituals are conducted, the Solāt Eidul-Adha and the Sacrifice.
The Solāt of 'Eidul-Adha as the Solāt ‘Eidil-Fitri is a Sunnah Mu’akad. It is strongly required and an important tradition in Islam and the Prophet Muhammad (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam) never neglected it. He is reported to have ordered the men, women and children to proceed to the 'Eid prayer ground. Even menstruating women are encouraged to go to the 'Eid ground but they should keep away from the actual place of prayer.
It is highly recommended to have Sunnah bath [ghusul] and to put on the most beautiful dresses and the best perfumes one can obtain. Prophet Muhammad (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam) used to do so. There is also a tradition that one should eat something before going to the 'Eid prayer and possibly.
The time for 'Eid ul Adha is when the sun has risen two meters (7 ft.) above the horizon and the time for 'Eidil- Fitr is while the sun has risen to three meters (10 ft.) above the horizon. 'Eid prayers cannot be said after midday.
it is better to hold 'Eid prayers in an open place or ground if there is no obstacle like rain or bad weather. The Prophet never performed 'Id prayers in the mosque except once due to rain.
No Adzan, No Iqamah
There is neither Adzan nor Iqamah for 'Eid prayers.
Performance of 'Eid Solāt
'Eid prayer consists of two Rak'ah with twelve takbīrs, Allāhu Akbar, seven in the first Rak'ah and five in the second. In the first Rak'ah just after Takbīratul Ihram, say seven Takbīrs lifting your hands with each Takbīr and after finishing seven Takbīrs go on with prayer in the usual way (Imam reading al-Fātihah and surah aloud.) In the beginning of the second Rak'at say five Takbīrs in the usual way. There is no special Dzikir between Takbīrs – but one would say Subhanallah Walhamdu Lillahi Wa Lā Ilāha Illalla Wallāhu Akbar.
After performing the Salāt, the Imam must deliver a khutbah just like al-Juma'at khutbah. But Imam Nawawi and some other scholars say that the khutbah of 'Id is not broken up into two parts with a period of sitting in between.
On returning home from the salāt, it is recommended to take a different route than that which was taken to the prayer.
Muslims is strongly required to repeat in a loud voice the Takbīr on the way to the Congregation and Eid Solāt and while waiting for the imam:
ALLĀH U AKBAR,
ALLĀH U AKBAR,
ALLĀH U AKBAR,
LA ILAHAILLA HU WALLĀH U AKBAR,
ALLĀH U AKBAR WA LILLAHIL HAMD
Imam or the leader will continue to say:
ALLĀH U AKBAR KABIRA,
WASUBHANALA HIWABUKRATAU WAASILA
LA ILAHAILLA HUWALA NA’BUDU ‘IYYA HUMUKHLISI NALAHUDDIN
LA ILAHAILLA HUWAHDAH
WAA`AZZAJUNDAHU WAHAZAMALAHZA BAWAHDAH
LA ILAHAILLA HU WALLĀH U AKBAR
ALLĀHU AKBAR WA LILLAHIL HAMD.
One also recommended to Takbīr after every congregational prayer starting from the Fajar, (Dawn prayer) on the day of Wukuf in Arafat on 9th Dzul Hijjah, to the 'Asar (afternoon prayer) on the last of the Days of Tashriq (the thirteenth day of Dzul-Hijjah). For the Pilgrims, the starting time is after the completion Jamrah-al-Aqabah of the Day of Nahr, 10th of Dzul-Hijjah).
This takbir applies to both the 'Eid ul Adha and ‘Eidul Fitri.
No Zakatul Fitr for Eidul Adha
Zakatul Fitr is obligatory for every Muslim man and woman, adult and child before 'Eidul Fitri only and NOT Eidul Adha. Zakatul Fitr is meant to purify the fasting (Saum) and to keep everybody in society happy and pleasant - rich and poor equally - so that nobody should go hungry on that day. Thus, it presents a magnificent example of comprehensive social justice in Islam.
Sacrificial Slaughter (udhiyah)
Udhiyah or sacrificial slaughter is done during 'Eidul Adha and is a sunnah mu’akad. It reflects the fact that the Muslim being a committed, as obedient servant of Allāh is always ready to sacrifice anything, even his life, in Allāh’s way. Udhhiyah is remembrances of the obedience of great sacrifice that Prophet Ibrahim a.s submitted to God by attempting to sacrifice his own son, Isma'il, to fulfil the command of Allāh Almighty.
The Essentials of Sacrifice
i) To say Allāh’s name: Bismillah Allāhu Akbar on commencing the slaughtering.
ii) Udhhiyah cannot be slaughtered before 'Eid prayer. It should be done immediately after prayers and on the three days after 'Eid: Dzul Hijjah 11, 12, 13.
iii) Udhhiyah can be a goat, sheep, cow, bull, buffalo or camel of either sex. Pregnant female animals should not be slaughtered. Seven persons can share in the last named four animals.
iv) The meat of the slaughtered animal should be divided into three parts. It is essential to give away to the Muslims: one third as gift to the poor and the needy, one third should be given to friends and relatives and one third kept to oneself.
v) For one who intends to make the sacrificial slaughter it is Sunnah not to shave his hair or clip his nails after Dzul Hijjah moon is sighted, until the time of slaughter. (Sahih Muslim)
Enjoyment in 'Eid Days
Islam urges us to enjoy life with every lawful means of enjoyment. Especially on 'Eid days the Islamic spirit of enjoyment and brotherhood becomes manifest. Thus Islam nourishes the spiritual aspirations of mankind along with its physical abilities.
On these days everyone should be happy with his family, his wife, his children, his Muslim brothers and sisters. Show mutual concern by exchanging gifts, smiling on the face of each other and expressing sincere love and affection to show the bondage of real brotherhood which stems from the belief in Allāh . All Muslims should cherish brotherly feeling in their hearts toward each other, avoid talking behind each other's backs, avoid blaming one another and avoid causing disruption in the Muslim community.
These are the days when we should glorify Allāh and observe His signs to have piety in our hearts.