Friday, December 29, 2006

Chronology of Prophet’s Farewell Hajj I.


1. The Prophet SAW resided in Medina for ten years, offering sacrifice every year, but did not perform Hajj during those years. He determined to set off for Hajj on Dzul-Qa'edah, 10 A.H.Thus the Prophet made a public announcement that he would perform the Hajj. When the people of Medina heard about it, those who could afford joined and participated with him to Makkah. The Prophet’s entourage was made up about 90,000 people assorting him on every side, in front and behind him, and both on his right and left sides. All of them were eager to follow the example of Allah's Messenger.

2. Prophet SAW appointed Abu Dujanah Sammak bin Kharshah Al-Sa`idi as the Caretaker Ruler of Medina.

Saturday 26-11-10 A.H. 22-2-632 A.C.

3. Having performed the Noon Prayer, the Prophet SAW delivered a sermon in which he taught people the rituals they were to perform.

4. Then he called for his she-camel and marked it on the right side of its hump, removed the blood from it and tied two sandals around its neck; and the rest of the she-camels was then marked and tied around their necks by other people. He put his she-camel under the charge of Najiah bin Jundub Al-Aslami.

5. The Prophet SAW took bathed, applied perfume, put on a gown and wrapper and said, "O Allah, let my Hajj be accepted, free of hypocrisy and showing off."

6. The Prophet SAW left Medina on Saturday, the 25th of Dzul-Qa`edah on Al- Shajarah [The Tree] route, which he used to take. He prayed in the mosque therein.

2. Dzul-Hulaifah

i. Spending the Night

Saturday 26-11-10 A.H. 22-2-632A.C.

1. Dzul-Hulaifah is three miles from Medina. It is located in ‘Aqiq Valley. The Prophet SAW arrived at Dzul-Hulaifah afternoon, and he performed the Asar Solat in shortened form.

2. The Prophet SAW made a stop under an acacia tree at the site of the mosque at Dhul-Hulaifah beneath Rausah on the right side of the road. Then he performed both the Maghrib and Isyak Solat.

3. After bathing and being perfumed by `A'ishah, the Prophet SAW paid a visit to his wives and spent the night at Dzul-Hulaifah.

4. After performing the Morning Prayer, he informed his Companions, "Tonight a messenger (in another narration: Gabriel) came to me from my Lord and said, 'Perform Prayer in this blessed valley and say: (I have intended to perform) `Umrah together with Haj.'" It actually meant to stay in Dzul- Hulaifah until performing the Noon Prayer and embarking on Ihram.

ii. Asma's Giving Birth to a Baby

In Dhul-Hulaifah, Asma' bint `Umais, wife of Abu Bakr Al-Siddiq, gave birth to a son, Muhammad bin Abi Bakr. She sent a message to the Prophet SAW asking him, "What should I do?" Thereupon he said, "Take a bath, bandage your private parts and put on Ihram."

Lessons Deduced

* A Muslim woman's firm faith and endurance are apparent, for if she had not been firmly faithful, why would she have set out from Medina for Hajj when she was expecting to give birth to a baby at any moment?

iii. Dhul-Hulaifah -Ihram

Sunday 27-11-10 A.H. 23-2-632 A.C.

1. Upon performing the Noon Prayer the Prophet SAW entered in the state of Ihram. He took a bath different from that of the previous day. He washed his head with hollyhock and potash. Then, he put little perfume on his hair and rubbed his head up and down with his fingers.

`A'ishah applied so much musk to his body and head that the flash of musk could be seen in the partings of his hair.

2. A man asked him, "What clothes must a Muhrim wear?" He replied, "Do not wear shirts, turbans, trousers, hooded cloaks or leather stockings except scuffs covering beneath one's heels."

1v. Pronouncing Talbiah

1. The Prophet SAW entered Dzul-Hulaifah mosque where he performed four raka`ahs. Afterwards, he pronounced Talbiah inside the mosque. Meanwhile, the people inside the mosque heard him and said, "He pronounced Talbiah in the mosque." He did the same when he mounted his camel. Therefore, those who were outside the mosque said, "He pronounced Talbiah when his she-camel stood erect with him on its back." When he went out to a plain land, he pronounced Talbiah. Hence those at the plain land heard him and said, "He pronounced Talbiah at the plain land." Thus they all told the truth.

2. He pronounced Talbiah for Hajj and `Umrah at the same time. In another occasion, he pronounced a separate Talbiah for `Umrah and another for Hajj, since `Umrah is a part of it. Hence, it is said that he intended to combine Hajj and `Umrah (Qiran Hajj). It is also said that he intended to combine Hajj and `Umrah with a break in between (Tamattu` Hajj). Other scholars say that he intended to perform Hajj alone (Ifrad Hajj). The soundest viewpoint is that the Prophet SAW intended at first to perform Hajj alone. Then he put on Ihram for `Umrah and combined it with Hajj.

v. Prophet's Talbiah

1. The Prophet SAW proclaimed Talbiah thus, "O my Lord! Here I am at Your service. Here I am. There is no partner with You. Here I am. Truly, all praise and grace are Yours and so are the dominion and sovereignty too. There is no partner with You." He raised his voice in Talbiah until it was heard by his Companions who repeated it after him.

2. He also pronounced Talbiah thus, "O Allah! Here I am at Your service, I respond to Your call. Here I am at Your service. Grace, good fortune and happiness are from You, and the whole of goodness is in Your Hand. Here I am at Your service. Unto You is the petition and hope. Reward for deeds is from You."

3. Additionally, the Talbiah of the Prophet SAW included,
"Here I am at Your service, to perform true Hajj for the sake of being Your true servant and obedient servant."

4. In his Talbiah, the Prophet SAW used to say, "Here I am at Your service, O Lord of Truth."

5. It was the habit of the Prophet SAW when he finished Talbiah to ask Allah to grant him forgiveness, contentment and salvation from Hell Fire.

6. Allah's Messenger SAW said, "Gabriel came to me and told me to command my Companions to raise their voice in pronouncing Talbiah." He added, "O Muhammad! Raise your voice in Talbiah and offer many sacrificial camels."

7. In another narration, he said, "Gabriel came to me and said, "O Muhammad! Tell your Companions to raise their voices in Talbiah, for it is the slogan of Hajj."

3. Al-Rauha'

Monday 28-11-10 A.H. 24-2-632 A.C.

1- Al-Rauha' is about fifty kilometers from Dhul-Hulaifah. In view of the fact that the Prophet SAW left Medina on Saturday after the Noon Prayer, he, undoubtedly, spent Monday night in some place between Dhul-Hulaifah and Fajj Al-Rauha'. In the morning, the Prophet SAW proceeded while pronouncing the aforementioned Talbiah.

2- In Al-Rauha' he saw a slain zebra and said to his Companions, "Keep away from it; its hunter is about to come." Its hunter, a man from the tribe of Bahz, came to the Prophet SAW and said, "O Apostle of Allah! This zebra is at your disposal." Thereupon, the Prophet SAW commanded Abu Bakr to divide it among the comrades.

3- The Prophet SAW performed Prayer in a small mosque, located in front of the great Mosque of Al-Rauha', on the right side of the Yemeni route leading to Mecca.

4. Al-Uthaiah

Tuesday 29-11-10 A.H. 25-2-632 A.C.

1. Leaving Fajj Al-Rauha', the Prophet SAW headed for Al-`Arj after passing by Al-Uthaiah which is about 90 kilometers from Al-Rauha'. Such long distance made it necessary for the traveling party to spend Tuesday night in some place before the Prophet SAW passed by Al-Uthaiah.

2. In Al-Uthaiah, between Al-Ruwaithah and Al- `Arj, there was a deer wounded and sleeping in the shade. The Prophet SAW asked a man (said to be Abu Bakr) to stand by it so as to prevent people from disturbing it until they went by it.

A Paradox

Why did the Prophet SAW permit eating the meat of a zebra while prohibiting that of the deer in Al-Uthaiah?


The zebra was hunted by a man not in the state of Ihram. He came in person to the Prophet SAW, who found out with certainty that the hunter was not in the state of Ihram. Therefore, the meat of zebra was lawful and the Prophet did not forbid eating it. Regarding the deer, the Prophet did not know who had hunted and shot the arrow at it, nor whether the hunter was in the state of Ihram or not. That is why he did not permit his Companions to eat it. Allah knows best.

5. Stopover at Al-'Araj

Tuesday 29-11-10 A.H. 25-2-632 A.C.

Al-`Arj is a place near Badr where the great Battle of Badr took place. The Prophet SAW stopped at Al-`Arj near Al-Uthaiah where he spent Wednesday night. Do you think Dzul-Qa`dah, 10 A.H. was 29 or 30 days?


Narrators disagreed as to whether Dzul-Qa`dah, 10 A.H. was a complete or incomplete month. The cause of this disagreement is the Hadith narrated by Ibn `Abbas, `A'ishah and Jabir that the Prophet SAW left Medina five days before the end of Dzul-Qa`dah. Thereupon, Ibn Hazm said that the Prophet's departure was on Thursday the 24th of Dzul-Qa`dah. However, other scholars maintained that the Prophet's departure was on Saturday. The narrator thought it was a complete month, but it was agreed that it was incomplete in that year. However, the soundest viewpoint is that:

* The Prophet SAW set off on Saturday, the 26th of Dzul-Qa`dah, 10 A.H. that corresponded to February 23, 632 A.D.

* Dzul-Qa`dah 10 A.H. was complete (30 days)

* Dzul-Hijjah was also complete, for, according to the Hijri calendar, that year was intercalary. In addition, February was also 29 days because, according to the Gregorian calendar, year 632 was a leap year.

* If Dzul-Hijjah was 30 days, it must have been a Hijri intercalary year. But if it was 29 days, it would be a simple year. To know whether a year is intercalary or simple, just divide it by 30, and correspond the quotient to the following figures: 2 - 5 - 7 - 10 -13 - 15 - 18 - 21 - 24 - 26 - 29. If it agrees with any of these figures, it is intercalary, and if not, it is simple. This is manifest in Dhul-Hijjah. If it is a simple year, Dhul-Hijjah will be 29 days. But if it is intercalary, Dhul-Hijjah will be 30 days.

6. Al-`Araj

i. Loss of His She-Camel

Wednesday 30-11-10 A.H. 26-2-632 A.C.

The Prophet SAW and Abu Bakr had only one camel carrying their food and belongings. Abu Bakr charged a boy to take care of it. While stopping over at Al-`Arj, the Prophet SAW sat down and on one of his sides sat Abu Bakr and `A'ishah and Asma' bint Abi Bakr on the other side. Abu Bakr waited for the boy to appear. At last, he appeared but without the camel. Thereupon, Abu Bakr asked, "Where is the camel you are in charge of?" "It got lost yesterday." answered the boy. In a rage, Abu Bakr exclaimed, "Can not you take care of just a camel?" and he began to lash the boy. Meanwhile, the Prophet SAW said while smiling, "Look at what this man in the state of Ihram is doing." The Prophet said no more than this, all the while smiling.

ii. Fadalah Family's Supper

Wednesday 30-11-10 A.H. 26-2-632 A.C.

When the family of Fadalah Al-Aslami knew about the loss of the camel carrying the belongings of the Prophet SAW, they immediately brought a bowl of pottage for him. Thereupon, the Prophet SAW cried, "Come hither! Abu Bakr; Allah has brought us better food." Seeing that Abu Bakr was still furious at the boy, the Prophet SAW said to him, "O Abu Bakr! Don't worry! The matter is neither at your or our disposal. The boy was careful not to lose the camel and, moreover, here is a recompense for what he had lost." The Prophet then ate together with his family and Abu Bakr and his family until they all were full.

iii. Return of the She-Camel

Wednesday 30-11-10 A.H. 26-2-632 A.C.

1. Safwan bin Al-Mu`ttal r.a came surrounded by people and driving the camel carrying the provisions. He knelt down the camel before the door of the Prophet SAW. The Prophet SAW said to Abu Bakr, "Are these your belongings?""Nothing is missing," replied Abu Bakr, "but a wooden bowl. " The boy said, "That bowl is with me. " Abu Bakr said to Safwan, "May Allah pay for you whatever is held in your trust."

2. Sa`d bin `Ubadah and his son, Qais, r.a came with a camel carrying food and went to the Prophet SAW. They found him standing at the door of his house, after Allah, the Exalted and Majestic, had brought his camel back. Sa`d said, "O Messenger of Allah, we have heard that you lost your camel early this morning. Here is a camel loaded with food in recompense for the lost one." The Prophet SAW said, "May Allah blesses you both! Take your camel back, for Allah has brought ours back."

7. Al-Abwa'

Wednesday 30-11-10 A.H. 26-2-632 A.C.

1.The Prophet SAW set out until he reached Al-Abwa' where Al-S`ab bin Juthamah gave him a zebra as a present. In another narration, he gave him half of a zebra. The Prophet SAW rejected it, saying, "We reject it only because we are in the state of Ihram."

2. On Wednesday, the traveling party continued the march to `Usafan Valley in Mecca.

8. Usafan

Wednesday 2-12-10 A.H. 28-2-632 A.C.

1. The Prophet SAW spent Wednesday night at a place between Al-Abwa' and `Usafan. On Thursday, he continued his journey and also spent Friday night in travel. By Friday, he had reached the Valley of `Usafan.

2. Passing by `Usafan, the Prophet SAW asked, "What valley is it, Abu Bakr?" "'Usafan," answered Abu Bakr. The Prophet SAW said, "This valley was passed through by Salih and Hud riding two young camels whose bridles were made of flax fibres. Their [the prophets'] wrappers were cloaks and their gowns were of striped wool, pronouncing Talbiah and performing Hajj to the Ancient House”.

3. The Prophet SAW spent Saturday night in an unknown place located after crossing `Usafan Valley. After rising, he continued the march towards Sarif.

9. Passing by Sarif

Saturday 3-12-10 A.H. 29-2-632 A.C.

In his book (Al-Tabaqat Al-Kubra), Ibn Sa`d said, "The Prophet SAW was in Marr Al-Zhahran on Monday and the sun set after reaching Sarif."

The Viewpoint

The right viewpoint is that the Prophet SAW was in Marr Al-Zhahran on Saturday morning. Then, he passed by Sarif on the same day and proceeded the march until he reached Dhi Tawa, where he spent Sunday night. However, Allah knows best.

i. Annulment of Hajj

Saturday 3-12-10 A.H. 29-2-632 A.C.

1. When he was in Sarif, the Prophet SAW said to his Companions, “Whoever has no sacrificial animal and desires to make it `Umrah may do so. But whoever has a sacrificial animal may not (he must keep on his state of Ihram)." This command is called "Hajj Conversion" by jurists.

2. Fourteen Companions, may Allah be pleased with them, narrated the command to convert Hajj into `Umrah after the Prophet in authentic hadiths.

ii. `Aishah’s weeping

Saturday 3-12-10 A.H. 29-2-632 A.C.

1. When the Prophet SAW was in Sarif, `Aishah menstruated after she had intended to perform `Umrah. The Prophet SAW found her crying and asked her, "Why do you cry , `A'ishah? Have you entered the monthly period?" "Yes," she answered. Prophet said, "It is a matter Allah has ordained for the daughters of Adam. So do as one performing Hajj should do, but do not perform Circumambulation."

10. Dhi-Tawa

Sunday 4-12-10 A.H. 1-3-632 A.C.

The Prophet SAW continued the march until he stopped over at Dhi Tawa, which was known in the past as Abar Al-Zahir [Al-Zahir Wells] where he spent Sunday night and performed the Morning Prayer. Thereafter, he took a bath and set out for Makkah.

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