Saturday, July 24, 2010

The Sujud

The Sujud (The Prostration)

The Solāh of the Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alaihi wa sallam)
By Shaikh Muhammad Nasiruddin Al-Albāni

[The book was translated by Usama Ibn Suhaib Hasan Al-Britanī; it would be worthwhile to revisit it and I invite you to provide inputs]

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful;
All the praise and Thanks are due to Allāh, the Lord of the al-ā’lamīn. There is none worthy of worship except Allāh, and that Muhammad, Sallallāhu alayhi wa sallam, is His Messenger.

The Description of the Solāh
2.9. The Sujud (The Prostration)

[After Ruku’], "The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)would say the takbir and go down into sajdah"[78], and he ordered "the one who prayed badly" to do so, saying to him, No one's prayer is complete unless ... he says: Allāh listens to the one who praises Him and stands up straight, then says: Allāh is the Greatest and prostrates such that his joints are at rest.[79]

Also, "when he (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) wanted to perform sajdah, he would say the takbir, [separate his hands from his sides,] and then perform Sajdah."[

Sometimes, "he (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) would raise his hands when performing sajdah."[

Going Down into Sujud on the Hands

"He used to place his hands on the ground before his knees."[82]

He (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) used to instruct likewise, saying, when one of you performs sajdah, he should not kneel like a camel, but should place his hands before his knees. [
83 ]

He (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)also used to say, Verily, the hands prostrate as the face prostrates, so when one of you places his face (on the ground), he should place his hands, and when he raises it, he should raise them.[84]

Description of Sujud

"He (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) would support himself on his palms [and spread them]"[85], "put his fingers together"[86], and "point them towards the qiblah."[87]

Also, "he would put them (his palms) level with his shoulders"[88], and sometimes "level with his ears"89. "He would put his nose and forehead firmly on the ground."[90]

He (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said to "the one who prayed badly", When you prostrate, then be firm in your prostration [91]; in one narration: When you prostrate, put your face and hands down firmly, until all of your bones are relaxed in their proper places. [92]

He (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) also used to say, "There is no prayer for the one whose nose does not feel as much of the ground as the forehead."[93]

"He (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)used to put his knees and toes down firmly"[94], "point with the front of the toes towards the qiblah"[95], "put his heels together"[96], "keep his feet upright"[97], and "ordered likewise."[98]

Hence, these are the seven limbs on which he (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)would prostrate: the palms, the knees, the feet, and the forehead and nose - counting the last two as one limb in prostration, as he (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)said: I have been ordered to prostrate (in one narration: we have been ordered to prostrate) on seven bones: on the forehead ..., and he indicated by moving his hand[99] around his nose, the hands (in one version: the palms), the knees and the toes, and not to tuck up[100] the garments and hair.[101]

He (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) also used to say, when a servant prostrates, seven limbs prostrate with him: his face, his palms, his knees and his feet. [102]

He (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)said about a man who was praying with his hair tied [103] behind him, His example is surely like that of someone who prays with his hands bound (behind his back).[104] He also said, That is the saddle of the devil, i.e. where the devil sits, referring to the knots in the hair.[105]

"He (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)would not rest his fore-arms on the ground"[106], but "would raise them above the ground, and keep them away from his sides such that the whiteness of his armpits could be seen from behind"[107], and also "such that if a small lamb or kid wanted to pass under his arms, it would have been able to do so."[108]

He (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)would do this to such an extent that one of his Companions said, "We used to feel sorry for the Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)because of the way he kept his hands away from his sides."[109]

He (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)used to order likewise, saying, When you perform sajdah, place your palms (on the ground) and raise your elbows[110], and Be level in sujud, and none of you should spread his fore- arms like the spreading of a dog (in one narration: like a dog spreads them)[111]. In a separate hadith, None of you should rest arms on the ground the way a dog rests them. [112]

He (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)also used to say, Do not spread your arms [the way a beast of prey does], rest on your palms and keep your upper arms apart, for when you do all that, every one of your limbs prostrates with you.[113]

Obligation to be calm in Sujud

He (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)used to command the completion of ruku' and sujud, comparing someone not doing so to the hungry man who eats one or two dates, which are of no use to him, and also saying about him, he is indeed one of the worst thieves among the people.

He (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) also ruled that the prayer of one who does not straighten his spine fully in ruku' and sujud is invalid, as has been mentioned under "Ruku'", and ordered "the one who prayed badly" to be at ease in his sujud, as mentioned before.

The Adhkār of Sujud

The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) would say any one of the following remembrances of Allāh and supplications in this posture:

1. “Subhāna Rabbiy al a’la”
(How Perfect is my Lord, the Most High), three times. [114]

Sometimes, "he (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) would repeat it many times than that." [115] Once, he repeated it so much that his sujud were nearly as long as his standing, in which he had recited three of the Long Surah: al-Baqarah, an-Nisa' and Al-’Imran. That prayer was full of supplication and seeking of forgiveness, as mentioned before under "Night Prayer".

2. “Subhāna Rabbiy al a’lā wa bihamdih”
(How Perfect is my Lord, the Most High, and Praised be He), three times. [116]

3. “Subbūhun Quddus Rabbul malāikati warrūh”
(Perfect, Blessed, Lord of the Angels and the Spirit). [117]

4. “Subhānakallāhumma Rabbanā Wabihamdika Allāhummaghfirli”
(How perfect You are O Allāh, our Lord, and Praised. O Allāh! Forgive me),
which he would say often in his ruku' and sujud, implementing the order of the Qur'an.[118]

5. “Alāhumma laka sajadtu, wabika amantu, walaka aslamtu [waantarabbi], sajawahyyalillazi khalaqahu wasawarahu, [fa ahsanasuwarahu], wasyaqqan sam’ahu wabasarahu [fa] tabakallāh huahsulkhaliqīn”
(O Allāh! For you I have prostrated; in You I have believed; to You I have submitted; [You are my Lord;] my face has prostrated for the One Who created it and shaped it, [shaped it excellently,] then brought forth its hearing and vision: [so] blessed be Allāh, the Best to Create!)[119]

6. “Allāhummaghfirli zanbi kulluh, wadiqqahuwajillah, wāwalahu waakhirah, wa`ala aniyatahu wasirrahu”
(O Allāh! Forgive me all my sins: the minor and the major, the first and the last, the open and the hidden). [120]

7."Sajadalakasawādiwakhayali, wa amabikafuādi, abuubinia’matika’alaiya, hazayyayaiya wamajanaitu’alanafsī"
(My person and my shadow have prostrated to You; my heart has believed in You; I acknowledge Your favours towards me: here are my hands and whatever I have earned against myself).[121]

8. “Subhānallazi yal ja baruti walmala kuyi walkib riyai wal ‘azamah”
(How Perfect is He Who has all Power, Kingdom, Magnificence and Supremity)[122], which he would say in night prayer, as with the following ones:

9. “Subhānaka [Allāhuma] wabihamdika, lāilāhailla anta”
(How perfect You are [O Allāh] and Praised. None has the right to be worshipped except you). [123]

10. “Allāhummaghfirly ma asartu, wamā’alantu”
(O Allāh! Forgive me what (sins) I have concealed and what (sins) I have done openly). [124]

11. “Allāhummaj ‘alfiyqalbi nura, [wafilisaaninura], waj ‘alfy samey’nura, waj ‘alfibasari nura, waj ‘almintahtynura, waj ‘alminfawqynura, wa ‘anyamini nura, wa ‘aniyasary nura, waj ‘alammamynura, waj ‘alkhalfinura, [waj ‘al fi naf si nura] wa’dhimli nura”
(O Allāh! Place light in my heart; [and light in my tongue;] and place light in my hearing; and place light in my seeing; and place light from below me; and place light from above me, and light on my right, and light on my left; and place light ahead of me; and place light behind me; [and place light in myself;] and make the light greater for me.)[125]

12."Allāhumma [inny] a ‘uzubi rido kamin sakhotika,wa[a ‘uzu] bimu ‘afatikamin ‘uquwbatika, waa ‘uzubikaminka, laahsythanaan  ‘alayka, anta kamaathnaita ‘aanafsika"
(O Allāh! [Indeed] I seek refuge with Your Pleasure from Your Anger; [I seek refuge] with Your Pardons from Your Punishment; I seek refuge with You from You. I cannot count all exultations upon You; You are as You have extolled Yourself. [126]

Forbiddance of Reciting the Qur'an in Sujud

He (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) used to forbid recitation of the Qur'an in ruku' and sujud, and commanded striving in, and a lot of, supplication in this posture, as explained previously under "Ruku'". He also used to say, The slave is closest to his Lord when he is prostrating, so increase supplication [in it]. [127]

He (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) would make his sujud about as long as his ruku', and sometimes he would make it extremely long due to the circumstances, as one of his Companions said:

"The Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) came out to us for one of the two later prayers, [Zuhur or 'Asar,] carrying Hasan or Husain. The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) then came to the front and put him down [next to his right foot], said takbeer for the prayer and commenced praying. During the prayer, he performed a very long prostration, so I raised my head [from among the people], and there was the child, on the back of the Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu 'alaihi wa sallam), who was in prostration. I then returned to my prostration. When the Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) had offered the prayer, the people said, 'O Messenger of Allāh! In the middle of [this] your prayer, you performed a prostration and lengthened it so much that we thought either something had happened, or that you were receiving revelation!' He (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said, “Neither of those was the case: actually, my son made me his mount, so I did not want to hurry him until he had satisfied his wish "[

In another hadith, "He (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) was praying. When he performed sajdah, al-Hasan and al-Husain jumped onto his back. When the people tried to stop them, he gestured to them to leave the two alone. After offering his prayer, he placed them in his lap and said; Whoever loves me should love these two."[129]

The Excellence of the Sajdah

He (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) used to say, “There is no one among my ummah whom I will not recognise on the Day of Resurrection”. They said, "How will you recognise them, O Messenger of Allāh, among the multitude of created beings?" He said, Do you not see that were one of you to enter an enclosure in which there was a jet black[130] steed and a horse with a white forehead and legs131, would you not recognise the latter from the former? They said, "Of course." He said, “Thus, my ummah on that day will surely have white faces [132] because of sujud, and white arms and feet [133] because of ablution”. [134]

He (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) would also say, “When Allāh intends to have mercy on whomsoever he wishes of the people of the Fire, He will order the angels to bring out whoever used to worship Allāh; so they will bring them out, recognising them from the marks of sujud, for Allāh has prohibited the Fire from devouring the marks of sujud. Thus, they will be brought out from the Fire, for the Fire devours all of a son of Adam except the marks of sujud. [

He (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) would often prostrate on the (bare) ground. [137]

"His Companions would pray with him in the intense heat, so when one of them could not press his forehead against the ground, he would spread his robe and prostrate on that." [138]

He (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)also used to say, the whole earth has been made a place of worship (masjid) and purification for me and my ummah; so wherever prayer becomes due on someone of my ummah, he has his place of worship (masjid) and his purification next to him. Those before me used to think that this was too much: indeed, they would only pray in their churches and synagogues. [139]

Sometimes, he (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)would prostrate in mud and water, and that happened to him once at dawn on the twenty-first night of Ramadhān, when it rained and the roof of the mosque, which was made of palm-branches, was washed away. So he (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) prostrated in mud and water; Abu Sa'id al- Khudri (radiallāhu‘anhu) said, "So I saw, with my own eyes, the Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu 'alaihi wa sallam), with traces of mud and water on his forehead and nose." [140]

Also, "he (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) would pray on a khumrah" [141] sometimes, or "on a mat"[142] sometimes, and "he prayed on it once when it had become blackened due to prolonged use." [143]

Rising from Sajdah
Next, "he (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)would raise his head from prostration while saying takbir"[144], and he ordered "the one who prayed badly" to do that, saying, The prayer of any person is not complete until ... he prostrates until his limbs are at rest, then he says, 'Allāh is the Greatest' and raises his head until he is sitting straight.[145] Also, "he would raise his hands with this takbir" sometimes.[146]

To sit Muftarishan between the Two Sajdahs
Next, "he (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) would lay his left foot along the ground and sit on it [relaxed]"[147], and he ordered "the one who prayed badly" thus, saying to him, “When you prostrate, prostrate firmly, then when you rise, sit on your left thigh”. [148]

“He (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) would have his right foot upright” [149] and "point its toes towards the qiblah."[150] [See diagram - qss]

Iqā' Between the Two Sajdahs
"He would sometimes practice iqā' [resting on both his heels and (all) his toes]."[151]

Obligation to be at Ease between the Two Sajdahs
"He (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) would be relaxed until every bone returned to its (proper) position"[152], and he ordered "the one who prayed badly" likewise, and said to him, “The prayer of any of you is not complete until he does this.” [153]

Lengthening the Sitting between the Two Sajdahs
Also, "he (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) would lengthen it until it was about almost as long as his sajdah"[154], and sometimes, "he would remain (in this position) until one would say: He has forgotten."[155]

The Adhkār between the Two Sajdahs
In this sitting, he (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) would say:

1. “Allāhumma [Rabbi] ghfirli, warhamni, [wajburni], [warfa’ni], wahdini
[wa`afini], warzuqni]”

(O Allāh! (in one version: O my Lord!) Forgive me; have mercy on me; [strengthen me;] [raise my rank;] guide me; [pardon me;] sustain me). [156]
Or sometimes, he (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) would say:

2. “Rabbiighfirliyaghfirli”
(O my Lord! Forgive me, forgive me). [157]
He would say the above two in night prayer also. [158]

The Second Sajdah
Next, "he (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) would say takbir and prostrate for the second time."[159] He also ordered "the one who prayed badly" to do so, saying to him after he had ordered him to be at ease between sajdahs, then say 'Allāh is the Greatest' and prostrate until your joints are relaxed [and do that in all your prayer].[160] He would perform this sajdah exactly as he performed the first one.

Also, "he (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) would raise his hands with this takbir" sometimes. [161]

Next, "he (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)would raise his head while saying takbeer"[162], and he ordered "the one who prayed badly" to do likewise, saying to him after ordering him to prostrate for the second time, "then raise your head and say takbir"[163]. He also said to him, "[then do that in all your bowings and prostrations,] for if you do that, your prayer will be complete, and if you fall short in any of this, you will be deficient in your prayer."[164] Also, "he would raise his hands"[165] sometimes with this takbir.

The Sitting of Rest (Jalsah al-Istirahah)

Next, "he would sit straight [on his left foot, upright, until every bone returned to its position]." [166]

Supporting Oneself with the Hands on Rising for the Next Raka'ah

Next, "he (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) would get up for the second raka'ah, supporting himself on the ground."[167] Also, "he (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) would clench his fists [168] during solah: supporting himself with his hands when getting up." [169]



78. Bukhari and Muslim.
79. Abu Dawud and Hakim, who declared it sahih and Dhahabi agreed.
80. Abu Ya’la in his Musnad (284/2) with a good isnad and Ibn Khuzaimah (1/79/2) with a different, sahih isnad.
81. Nasa’ie, Daraqutni and Mukhlis in Al-Fawā'id (1/2/2) with two sahih isnads. This raising of the hands has been reported from ten Companions, and a number of the Salaf viewed it as correct, among them Ibn `Umar, Ibn ‘Abbas, Hasan Basri, Tawus, his son ‘Abdullah, Nāfi’ the freed slave of Ibn ‘Umar, Salim the son of Ibn ‘Umar, Qasim bin Muhammad, `Abdullah bin Deenaar and ‘Atā'. Also, ‘Abdur Rahmaan bin Mahdi said, "This is from the Sunnah", it was practised by the Imam of the Sunnah, Ahmad bin Hanbal, and it has been quoted from Malik and Shāfi’e.
82. Ibn Khuzaimah (1/76/1), Daraqutni and Hākim, who declared it sahih and Dhahabi agreed. All the ahadith which contradict this are inauthentic. This way has been endorsed by Mālik, and similar is reported from Ahmad in Ibn al-Jawzi's Al-Tahqiq (108/2). Also, al-Marwazi quoted with a sahih isnad, Imam al-Awza’ie in his Masā'il (1/147/1) as saying, "I found the people placing their hands before their knees."
83. Abu Dawud, Tammam in al-Fawā'id, and Nasā'ie in Sunan as-Sughrā and Sunan al-Kubrā (47/1) with a sahih isnād. ‘Abdul Haqq declared it sahih in al-Ahkam (54/1), and went on to say in Kitab al-Tahajjud (56/1), "it has a sounder isnad than the previous one", i.e. the hadith of Wa’il which is the other way round (knees before hands). In fact, the latter hadith, as well as being contradictory to this sahih hadith and the preceding one, is neither authentic in isnad nor in meaning, as I have explained in Silsilah al-Ahadith ad-Da’iefah (no. 929) and al-Irwa' (357).
It should be known that the way to differ from the camel is to place the hands before the knees, because the camel places its knees first; a camel's "knees" are in its forelegs, as defined in Lisaan Al-‘Arab and other books of the `Arabic language, and as mentioned by Tahawi in Mushkil al-Āthar and Sharh Ma’ani al-Āthar. Also, Imām Qasim al-Saraqusti (rahimahullāh) narrated in Gharib al-Hadith (2/70/1-2), with a sahih isnad, Abu Hurairah's statement, "No one should kneel the way a runaway camel does", and then added, "This is in sajdah. He is saying that one should not throw oneself down, as a runaway (or untamed) camel does, hurriedly and without calmness, but he should go down calmly, placing his hands first, followed by his knees, and an explanatory marfu’ hādith has been narrated in this regard." He then mentioned the hadith above.
As for Ibn al-Qayyim's extremely strange statement, "These words are incomprehensible, and not understood by the experts of the language", it is answered by the sources which we have mentioned, and also many others which can be consulted. I have also expanded on this in the refutation against Shaikh Tuwaijri, which may be published.
84. Ibn Khuzaimah (1/79/2), Ahmad and Siraj; Hākim declared it sahih and Dhahabi agreed. It is given in Irwa' (313).
85. Abu Dawud and Hākim, who declared it sahih and Dhahabi agreed.
86. Ibn Khuzaimah, Bayhaqi and Hākim, who declared it sahih and Dhahabi agreed.
87. Bayhaqi with a sahih isnad. Ibn Abi Shaibah (1/82/2) and Siraj have related the pointing of the toes in a different narration.
88. Abu Dawud and Tirmidzi, who declared it sahih, as did Ibn al-Mulaqqin (27/2); it is given in Irwa' (309).
89. Abu Dawud and Nasā'ie with a sahih isnad.
90. Abu Dawud and Tirmidzi, who declared it sahih, as did Ibn al-Mulaqqin (27/2) it is given in al-Irwa, (309).
91. Abu Dawud and Ahmad with sahih isnad.
92. Ibn Khuzaimah (1/10/1) with a hasan isnad.
93. Daraqutni, Tabarāni (3/140/1) and Abu Nu‘aim in Akhbar Isbahan.
94. Bayhaqi with a sahih isnād. Ibn Abi Shaibah (1/82/2); Siraj have related the pointing of the toes in a different narration.
95. Bukhari and Abu Dawud. Ibn Sa‘ad (4/157) related from Ibn ‘Umar that he liked to point whatever of his body he could towards the qiblah when praying, even his thumbs.
96. Tahawi, Ibn Khuzaimah (no. 654) and Hākim, who declared it sahih and Dhahabi agreed.
97. Baihaqi with a sahih isnad.
98. Tirmidzi and Siraj; Hākim declared it sahih and Dhahabi agreed.
99. This movement of the hand was deduced from the grammar of the Arabic text. (Fathul-Bāri)
100. i.e. to draw them in and prevent them from being scattered, meaning to gather the garment or hair with the hands for ruku’ and sujud. (Nihayah). This forbiddance is not only during prayer; the majority of scholars include tucking in the hair and garments before prayer in the prohibition. This is further strengthened by his forbidding men to pray with their hair tied, which follows later.
101. Bukhari; Muslim. It is given in al-Irwa' (310).
102. Muslim, Abu ‘Awānah and Ibn Hibban.
103. i.e. tied up or plaited.
104. Muslim, Abu ‘Awānah and Ibn Hibban. Ibn al-Āthir says, "The meaning of this hādith is that were his hair loose, it would fall on the ground when in sajdah; hence, the man would be rewarded for the prostration of the hair. However, if the hair is tied, it is effectively as though it did not prostrate, for he compared him to someone whose hands are shackled together, since they would then not lie on the ground in sajdah."
It would seem that this instruction is limited to men and does not apply to women, as Shawkāni has quoted from Ibn al-‘Arabi.
105. Abu Dawud and Tirmidzi, who declared it hasan; Ibn Khuzaimah and Ibn Hibban, declared it sahih. See Sāhih Abi Dawud (653).
106. Bukhari and Abu Dawud.
107. Bukhari and Muslim. It is given in Irwa' (359).
108. Muslim, Abu ‘Awānah and Ibn Hibban.
109. Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah with a hasan isnad.
110. Muslim and Abu ‘Awānah.
111. Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Dawud and Ahmad.
112. Ahmad and Tirmidzi, who declared it sahih.
113. Ibn Khuzaimah (1/80/2), al-Maqdisi in al-Mukhtārah and Hākim, who declared it sahih and Dhahabi agreed.
114. Ahmad, Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah, Daraqutni, Tahawi, Bazzār, and Tabaraani in Mu’jam al-Kabir on the authority of seven different Companions. See also the note on this dzikir under "Ruku`".
115. See the previous note on this under "Ruku’"also.
116. Sahih, transmitted by Abu Dawud, Daraqutni, Ahmad, Tabarāni and Bayhaqi.
117. Muslim and Abu ‘Awānah.
118. Bukhari and Muslim.
119. Muslim, Abu ‘Awanah, Tahawi and Daraqutni.
120. Muslim and Abu ‘Awānah.
121. Ibn Nasr, Bazzār and Hākim, who declared it sahih but Dhahabi disagreed, however, it has a support which is mentioned in the manuscript version.
122. Abu Dawud and Nasā'ie, with a sahih isnad.
123. Muslim, Abu ‘Awānah, Nasā'ie and Ibn Nasr.
124. Ibn Abi Shaibah (62/112/1); Nasā’ie; Hakim declared it sahih and Dhahabi agreed.
125. Muslim, Abu ‘Awānah and Ibn Abi Shaibah (12/106/2, 112/1).
126. ibid.
127. Muslim, Abu ‘Awānah and Bayhaqi. It is given in Irwa' (456).
128. Nasa’ie, Ibn ‘Asakir (4/257/1-2) and Hakim, who declared it sahih and Dhahabi agreed.
129. Ibn Khuzaimah in his Sahih, with a hasan isnad from Ibn Mas'ud (887) and Bayhaqi in mursal form. Ibn Khuzaimah prefixed it with, "Chapter: evidence that gesturing which is understood during prayer neither invalidates nor spoils the prayer" - this action is one which the People of Opinion have prohibited! In this regard, there are also ahadith in Bukhari, Muslim and others.
130. i.e. its colour is pure black, with no other colours mixed with it. (Nihayah)
131. The whiteness refers to that part of the horse where chains and bangles are put, including the lower legs but not the knees.
132. i.e. the shining of the face due to the light of sujud.
133. i.e. the shining of the parts covered in ablution: the face, hands and feet. The shining marks of ablution on the face, hands and legs of humans are compared to the whiteness of a horse's face and legs.
134. Ahmad, with a sahih isnad. Tirmidzi related a part of it and declared it sahih. It is given in Silsilah al-Ahādith as-Sahihah.
135.Bukhari and Muslim; the hadith shows that the sinful from among those regular at Prayer, will not remain the Fire forever; in fact, even those given to missing prayers out of laziness will not remain in the Fire forever, this is authentic - see as-Sahihah (2054).
136. Ar. haseer: a mat made of date-palm leaves or straw, etc.
137. This was because his mosque was not covered with mats, etc. This is evident from a great many ahadith, such as the next one and the one of Abu Sa‘id later.
138. Muslim and Abu ‘Awānah.
139. Ahmad, Siraj and Bayhaqi, with a sahih isnad.
140. Bukhari and Muslim.
141. ibid. A khumrah is a piece of matting, palm-fibre, or other material which is big enough for a man to place his face on it in sajdah; the term does not apply to larger pieces.
142. ibid.
143. Muslim and Abu ‘Awānah. Ar. labisa usually means 'to wear', but here it is used to mean 'to use', i.e. to sit on; hence 'wearing' includes 'sitting on', so this indicates that it is prohibited (haram) to sit on silk, because of the prohibition on wearing it established in the Sahihs of Bukhari and Muslim, and others. In fact, a clear forbiddance of sitting on silk is related in these, so do not be confused by the fact that some leading scholars allow it.
144. Bukhari and Muslim.
145. Abu Dawud and Hakim who declared it sahih and Dhahabi agreed.
146. Bukhari in his Juz' Raf` al-Yadain, Abu Dawud with a sahih isnad, Muslim and Abu ‘Awānah. It is given in Irwa' (316).
To raise the hands here, and with every takbir, was a view voiced by Ahmad, as in Ibn al-Qayyim's Badaa'i` (3/89): "Athram quoted from him (Imam Ahmad) that on being asked about raising the hands, he said: With every movement down and up. Athram said: I saw Abu ‘Abdullah (i.e. Imām Ahmad) raises his hands in prayer with every movement down and up."
This was also the opinion of Ibn al-Mundhir and Abu ‘Ali of the Shāfi’es, and also a view of Malik and Shāfi’e themselves, as in Tarh at-Tathrib. The raising of the hands here is also authentically-reported from Anas bin Mālik, Ibn ‘Umar, Nāfi’, Tawus, Hasan Basri, Ibn Sirin and Ayyub as-Sikhtiani, as in Musannaf Ibn Abi Shaibah (1/106) with sahih narrations from them.
147. Ahmad and Abu Dawud with a good isnad.
148. Bukhari and Baihaqi.
149. Nasā'ie with a sahih isnad.
150. Muslim, Abu ‘Awānah, Abu Shaikh in Ma Rawahu Abu az-Zubair ‘an Ghair Jabir (nos. 104-6); Baihaqi.
151. ibid. Ibn al-Qayyim (rahimahullah) overlooked this, so after mentioning the Prophet's (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) Iftirash between the two sajdahs, he said, "No other way of sitting here is preserved from him”! How can this be correct, when iq‘ā' has reached us via: the hadith of Ibn ‘Abbas in Muslim, Abu Dawud and Tirmidzi, who declared it sahih, and others (see Silsilah al-Ahadith as-Sahihah 383); the hadith of Ibn `Umar with a hasan isnad in Bayhaqi, declared sahih by Ibn Hajar. Also, Abu Ishaq al-Harbi related in Gharib al-Hadith (5/12/1) from Tawus, who saw Ibn ‘Umar and Ibn ‘Abbas practising iq`ā'; its sanad is sahih. May Allāh shower His Mercy on Imam Malik, who said, "Every one of us can refute and be refuted, except the occupant of this grave", and he pointed to the grave of the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alaihi wa sallam). This Sunnah was practised by several Companions, Successors and others, and I have expanded on this in al-Asl.Of course, this iqā' is different to the one which is forbidden, and follows under "Tashahhud"
152. Abu Dawud and Bayhaqi with a sahih isnad.
153. Abu Dawud and Hakim, who declared it sahih and Dhahabi agreed.
154. Bukhari and Muslim.
155. ibid. Ibn al-Qayyim said, "This sunnah was abandoned by the people after the time of the Companions. But as for the one who abides by the Sunnah, and does not glance sideways towards whatever contradicts it, he is unworried by anything opposing this guidance."
156. Abu Dawud, Tirmidzi, Ibn Majah and Hākim, who declared it sahih and Dhahabi agreed.
157. Ibn Mājah with a hasan sanad. Imām Ahmad chose to supplicate with this one; Ishaq bin Rahawaih said, "If he wishes, he can say this three times, or he can say O Allāh! Forgive me ..., because both of them have been reported from the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) between the two sajdahs." (Maā'il of Imam Ahmad and Ishaq bin Rahawaih as related by Ishaq al-Marwazi, p. 19).
158. This does not negate the validity of the expressions in the obligatory prayers due to the absence of anything to differentiate between those and voluntary prayers. This is the view of Shafi’e, Ahmad and Ishaq, who held that this was allowed in compulsory and voluntary prayers, as Tirmidzi has narrated. Imam Tahawi has also taken this view in Mushkil al-Aathar. Proper analysis supports this argument, for there is no position in prayer where a dzikir is not valid, and so it is fitting that this should be the case here.
159. Bukhari and Muslim.
160. Abu Dawud and Hākim, who declared it sahih and Dhahabi agreed; the addition is from Bukhari and Muslim.
161. Abu ‘Awānah and Abu Dawud with two sahih sanads. This raising of the hands has supported by Ahmad, Malik and Shafi’ie in narrations from them. See the previous note under Sujud.
162. Bukhari and Muslim.
163. Abu Dawud and Hakim, who declared it sahih and Dhahabi agreed.
164. Ahmad; Tirmidzi, who declared it sahih.
165 .see the fourth last note.
66. Bukhari and Abu Dawud. This sitting is known as Jalsah al-Istirahah (the sitting of rest) by the scholars of fiqh. Shafi’e supported it, as did Ahmad in Tahqiq (111/1) and favoured it more strongly, as is well-known of him that he would insist on following a Sunnah which had nothing to contradict it. Ibn Hani said in his Masa'il of Imam Ahmad (p. 42), "I saw Abu ‘Abdullah (i.e. Imam Ahmad) sometimes leaning on his hands when standing up for the next raka`ah, and sometimes sitting straight and then getting up." It was also the preference of Imam Ishaq bin Rahawaih, who said in Marwazi's Masa'il (1/147/2), "The example was set by the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) of supporting himself with his hands when getting up, whether he was old or young." See also Irwa' (2/82-3).
167. Bukhari and Shāfi’ie.
168. Literally, "as one who kneads dough".
169. Abu Ishaq al-Harbi with a faultless sanad and its meaning is found in Baihaqi with a sahih sanad. As for the hadith, "He used to get up like an arrow, not supporting himself with his hands", it is mawdu` (fabricated), and all narrations of similar meaning are weak, not authentic, and I have explained this in Silsilah al-Ahadith ad-Da’iefah (562, 929, 968).

[Via The Qur'an and Sunnah Society]

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