Should one made up Solāh Duha if he missed it?
What is the proper time for "Isra’" and "al-Duha" Prayer? If I missed it should I make it up after Dzuhur prayer?
In the name of Allāh, Most Gracious, Most Merciful.
All the praise and thanks is due to Allāh, Subhanahu wata`ala. Peace and blessings be upon His Messenger.
Firstly: Ishraq (“ishrak”) prayer is Duha (“virtuous”) prayer offered at the beginning of its time. They are not two different prayers. It is called Ishraq because it is done immediately after sunrise (Shuruq) when the sun has risen to a certain height.
The time for Solāh ad-Duha is from when the sun has risen to the height of a spear, which is fifteen, or twenty minutes after sunrise, until just before the sun passes its zenith (and the zenith is when the time for Dzuhur prayer begins). It is ten to fifteen minutes before it reaches the zenith, i.e. before the time when it is forbidden to pray begin.
[Al-Sharh al-Mumti’, 4/122]
The Prophet (sallallāhu 'alaihi wa sallam) said:
“It is preferable to offer Duha prayer when the sun’s heat has become so intense that even the young of the camels feel it.”
[Narrated by Muslim, 748]
[Majmu’ Fatawa al-Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (rahimahullah), (14/306)]
Ibn Muflih (rahimahullāh) said: The time for (Duha) is from when the time when it is forbidden to pray ends, until the sun reaches its zenith. What is meant – and Allāh knows best – is just before the sun passes its zenith, because it is forbidden to pray at that time.
Secondly: The scholars differed with regard to making up Duha prayer if the time has ended.
Some of them were of the view that it should be made up, and this is the correct view according to the follower of the Shafi’ie and some of the Hanbalis. But others were of the view that it should not be made up. This is the view of al-Shafi’ie and of the Hanbali and Maliki.
Al-Nawawi (Rahimallāh) said:
Nāwafil prayers are of two types, the first is not related to a specific time but done for a reason such as eclipses, praying for rain and tahiyatul masjid. If it is missed, it cannot be made up.
The second type is related to a specific time, such as Eid prayer, Duha and regular Sunnah prayers that are offered with obligatory prayers, such as the Sunnah of Zuhur etc.
There are three views concerning these Nāwafil Prayers performed at a specific time.
• The first view that it is mustahab to make them up and regarded as the correct view is. Al-Qadi Abu’l-Tayyib and others said that this is the view that is stated in the view of al-Shafi’yyah (followers of Shafi’ie).
• The second view is that they should not be made up, this was stated in the view of al-Shafi’ie, and it is the view of Abu Hanifah.
• The third view is that independent prayers such as Eid and Duha should be made up, whereas prayers that are not independent such as the regular Sunnah prayers that are offered with obligatory prayers should not be made up.
The evidence for that are the words of the Prophet (sallallāhu 'alaihi wa sallam):
“Whoever sleeps and misses a prayer or forgets it, let him pray it when he remembers it.”
Abu Qatadah (radiallāhu`anhu) narrated the Prophet (sallallāhu 'alaihi wa sallam) missed his Fajar prayer whilst travelling, until the sun had risen. So he took wudhu’ then he observed a two raka’ahs, then the iqamah was given and he performed Solat Fajar.
What is meant by a two raka’ahs is the regular Sunnah prayer that comes before Fajar.
Umm Salamah (radiallāhu‘anha) narrated that the Prophet (sallallāhu 'alaihi wa sallam) performed Solat two raka’ahs after ‘Asar and she asked him about it. He (sallallāhu 'alaihi wa sallam) said:
“Some people from ‘Abd al-Qays came to me with the news that their people had become Muslim and they distracted me from the two raka’ahs that come after Dzuhur, so I did these two raka’ahs after ‘Asar.”
[Narrated by al-Bukhari and Muslim]
Abu Hurayrah (radiallāhu`anhu) narrated that the Prophet (sallallāhu 'alaihi wa sallam) said:
“Whoever did not perform two raka’ahs of Fajar until the sun rose let him pray them (now)”
[Narrated by al-Bayhaqi with a jayyid isnad]
Abu Saeed Al-Khudri (radiallāhu`anhu) narrated that the Prophet (sallallāhu 'alaihi wa sallam) said:
“Whoever slept and missed Witr, or forgot it, let him pray it when he remembers.”
[Narrated by Abu Dawud with a hasan isnad]
‘Aishah (radiallāhu’anha) narrated that if the Prophet (sallallāhu 'alaihi wa sallam) missed praying at night because of illness or anything else, he would pray twelve rak’ahs during the day.
[Narrated by Muslim]
There are many other ahādith about this matter, apart from those which we have mentioned, but this is sufficient. [Al-Majmu’ (3/532)]
Al-Mardawi said: Shaykh ‘Abd al-Qadir said: He may do it after the sun has passed its zenith, but if he delays it until he has prayed Zuhur, he may make it up. [Al-Insaf (2/191)]
The Hanafis stated that if the Sunnah prayers are missed, none of them should be made up except the Sunnah of Fajar, which should be made up if it is missed along with the obligatory prayer, and it may be made up until the sun reaches its zenith. [Al-Fatawa al-Hindiyyah (1/112)]
This is also the view of the Malikis. In their view no nāfil prayer should be made up except the two raka’ahs of Fajar, which may be made up until the sun reaches the zenith, whether the obligatory Fajar prayer was offered alongside it or not. [Balghat al-Salik (1/408); al-Mawsu’ah al-Fiqhiyyah al-Kuwaitiyyah (34/37)]
Shaikh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (Rahimahullāh): was asked: If the Sunnah prayer of Duha is missed, should it be made up or not?
Ibn ‘Uthaymeen replied: If the time for Solat al-Duha is missed, then its prayer has been missed, it should not be made up because it is limited to that time frame.
But with regard to miss (within the shar’ie excuse) the regular Sunnah prayers related to the obligatory prayers, they may be made up alongside them.
The same also applies to Witr, because it is proven in the Sunnah that if the Prophet (sallallāhu 'alaihi wa sallam) slept or was ill at night he would pray a twelve raka’ahs during the day. And Witr may also be made up.
[Majmu’ Fatawa al-Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (14/305)]
The matter is broad in scope, praise be to Allāh.
Allāh Almighty Knows Best.
[Excerpted with minor modification from Fatwa No: 72828 Islam Q&A]