Friday, June 11, 2010

Al-Qunut in the Solat

Du‘ā al-Qunūt in Solāt

Question: Were the Qunut in Solāt and raising hand after ruku' was that the common practice of Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wassallam) or was it exceptional as the situation arouses? The Amir of our Masjid said that Prophet (Sallallāhu alayhi wassallam) once asked which of the solāt is best; He (Sallallāhu alayhi wassallam) replied the one which has longer Qunut.

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful;
All the praise and Thanks is due to Allāh, the Lord of al-ā’lamīn. I testify that there is none worthy of worship except Allāh, and that Muhammad, sallallāhu alayhi wa sallam, is His Messenger.

The Fuqaha’ defined al-Qunūt as being obedient, humble, or the act of long standing and  in the context of solāt it implies a duā’ offered during that long stand after the rukū’ following the i’tidal in last raka’ah. A Hadith narrated from Jabir bin Abdullah (radiallāhu‘anhu), which says that the Prophet (sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “The best of solāt is the long standing al-qunūt” (Muslim, 1257). The supplication is of three kinds: Qunūt al-Nazilah, Qunut al-Witr, and Qunut al-Fajar.

When a calamity (nazilah) befalls the ummah, it is prescribed to say Duā’ al-Qunūt after rising up from ruku’ in the last raka’ah of each of the five daily obligatory prayers, until Allāh relieves that calamity. The Qunūt al-Witir is said after ruku’ in the final raka’at.

[See Tashih al-Duā’ by Shaykh Bakar Abu Zaid, p. 460]

Dua’ al-Qunūt in Solāh al-Fajar

Scholars differs in their opinion regarding Du‘ā al-Qunut in Solāt Fajar. According to the majority of scholars there is no Du‘ā al-Qunūt in the Solat Fajar except during times of calamity, in which case it may be made in the five daily prayers. But the Shāfi'ie School of Jurisprudence is of the opinion that it is Sunnah Ab‘ad, a highly recommended Sunnah to recite Du‘ā al-Qunūt in Solāt Fajar.

But Abu Malik Al-Asha’ri (radiyallāhu‘anhu) said: "My father prayed behind the Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alaihi wa sallam) when he was sixteen years old, and he prayed behind Abu Bakar, 'Umar, and 'Uthman (radiyallāhu‘anhum). I asked him, 'Did they make the qunut?' He said, 'No, son, it is something that has been innovated."' Recorded by Ahmad, An-Nasā'ie, Ibn Mājah, and At-Tirmidzi called it sahih.

Anas Ibn Malik (radiyallāhu‘anhu) said that the Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alaihi wa sallam) would not recite the qunūt in Solah Fajar unless he was supplicating for or against a people. This is recorded by Ibn Hibban, Al-Khatib, and Ibn Khuzaimah who said it is sahih.

It is also related that Az-Zubair, Abu Bakar, ‘Umar, and ‘Uthman (radiyallāhu‘anhum) did not make the qunūt in the Solat Fajar. This is the opinion of the Hanafis, the Hanbalis, Ibn al-Mubarak, al-Thawri, and Ishaq.

The  Shāfi'ie School of Jurisprudence is of the opinion that it is Sunnah Ab‘adh to recite Du ‘ā al-Qunūt after the ruku' of the second raka'ah in the Solat Fajar on the basis hadiths of Anas ibn Malik and Khalifah ‘Umar bin Al-Khattab (radhiallāhu ‘anhum) offered it in Solāt Fajar.

In that hadith Ibn Sireen narrated that Anas Ibn Malik (radiyallāhu‘anhu) was asked: "Did the Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alaihi wa sallam) make the qunūt in the Solat Fajar?" He answered: "Yes." They asked him: "Before the ruku' or after it?" He (Anas radiyallāhu‘anhu) replied: "After it." This is recorded by jama’ah except At-Tirmidzi.

A hadith from Anas Ibn Malik (radiyallāhu‘anhu) which says: "The Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu 'alaihi wa sallam) did not stop making Qunūt during the solāt Fajar until he left this world." This is recorded by Ahmad, Al-Bazzār, Ad-Daraqutni, Al-Baihaqi, and Al-Hakim who says it is sahih.

However, there remains some uncertainty by some scholars concerning this evidence (hadith) because al-Qunūt which they asked Anas Ibn Malik (radiyallāhu‘anhu) about, was clear in the narrations of Al-Bukhari and Muslim, that was the al-Qunūt during the time of calamities.

The contention is that in the latter hadith; its chain of narrators there is Abu Ja'far Ar-Razi who was not a credible and, thus, it cannot be made as a case upon his hadith. And could it be that the Messenger of Allah (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) never stopped performing this Qunūt until his death, and yet, the Rightly Guided Caliphs did not perform it? And it was reported even Anas Ibn Mālik (radiyallāhu‘anhu) himself did not make Du‘ā al-Qunūt in the Solat Fajar.

If we accept this latter hadith as authentic, then it would mean that the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) always made supplications and dzikir, after ruku' until his death. This would also come under al-Qunūt and in this sense, and indeed it would be more befitting. As one must not forget a long standing at that point is indeed a Qunūt by definition. A Hadith narrated from Jabir bin Abdullah (radiallāhu‘anhu), which says that the Prophet (sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “The best of prayer is the long standing al-qunūt” [Muslim (1257)] It would be worthy to recite a Dzikir or a du'a in that long stand. More so with the content of duā al-qunūt is about Tawhid and submission to Allāh.

This is one of the issues of the differences of opinion, and the approach is one can either observe it or leave it. The Shāfi'ies is in the opinion that it is a Sunnah Ab‘ad to recite Du‘ā al-Qunūt during that long stand after ruku’ in last raka’ah of Solāt Fajar. Sunnah Ab‘ad means an act of highly recommended Sunnah which whoever forgets it, it is thus recommended to performed Sujud al-Sahwi. It is not obligatory. In any way the best guidance is that of Prophet Muhammad (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam).And Allāh knows best
Imam Shāfi’e (rahimahullāh) said:”The sunnahs of the Messenger of Allāh (sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) reach, as well as escape from, every one of us. So whenever I voice my opinion, or formulate a principle, where something contrary to my view exists on the authority of the Messenger of Allāh (sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam), then the correct view is what the Messenger of Allāh (sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) has said, and it is my view."   [Related by Hakim with a continuous sanad up to Shāfi’e, as in Tarikh Dimashq of Ibn 'Asakir (15/1/3), I’lam al- Mūqi'īn (2/363, 364) and Eqāz (p. 100). 

Qunūt during Solāh al-Witr

In Ramadhān Duā’ al-Qunūt is recited in Qiyam Ramadhān (Tarāwih) from the sixteen nights onwards. A number of wordings have been narrated on Duā’ al-Qunūt in Witr prayer, including the following version [also used in Fajar] which the Messenger of Allāh (sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam) taught to al-Hasan ibn ‘Ali (radiyallāhu‘anhu), which is:

“Allāhumma ihdini fīman hadayt, wa ‘āfini fīman ‘āfayt, wa tawallani feeman tawallayt, wa bārik li fīma a’tayt, wa qini sharra ma qadayt, fa innaka taqdi wa la yuqda ‘alayk, wa innahu lā yadzillu mañ wālayt, wa lā ya’izzu man ‘ādayt, tabārakta Rabbanā wa ta’ālayt, La manja minka illa ilayk”

(O Allāh, guide me among those whom You have guided, pardon me among as those You have pardoned, turn to me in friendship among those You have turned in friendship, and bless me in what You have bestowed, and save me from the evil of what You have decreed. For verily You decree and none can influence You; and he is not did not humiliate whom You have befriended, nor is he honoured who is Your enemy. Blessed are You, O Lord, and Exalted. There is no place of safety except with You).”

[Narrated by Abu Dawud, 1213; al-Nasā’ie, 1725; classified as sahih by al-Albāni in al-Irwa’, 429].

In another narration by Imam al-Baihaqi the Du‘ā al-Qunūt is with an addition after La manja minka illa ilayk:

“Falakalhamdu ‘alamāqadayt, Astaghfirukawātubuilaik. Wa sallallāhu ‘ala Muhammadin Nabiyilummi wa`ala ālihi wasahbihi wa sallam”

(You are most blessed and upon you all the praise you had bestowed, I seek forgiveness from Allāh and I repent to Him. And O Allāh! Send prayers on Muhammad the Unlettered Prophet and on the family and his companions)

It was narrated from ‘Ali ibn Abi Tālib (radiyallāhu‘anhu) that the Prophet (sallallāhu 'alaihi wa sallam) used to say at the end of Witr:

“Allāhumma inni a’udzu bi ridāka min sakhatika wa bi mu’āfātika min ‘uqubatika wa a’udzu bika minka, la uhsi thana’an ‘alayka anta kama athnayta ‘ala nafsika”

(O Allāh, I seek refuge in Your pleasure from Your wrath and in Your forgiveness from Your punishment. I cannot praise You enough; You are as You have praised Yourself.)

[Narrated by al-Tirmidzi, 1727; classified as sahih by al-Albāni in al-Irwa’, 430; Sahih Abi Dawud, 1282]

Then he should send blessings upon the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) as it was narrated that some of the Sahābah (radiyallāhu‘anhum) – including Ubayy ibn Ka‘ab and Mu‘adz al-Ansari (radiyallāhu‘anhu) – did that at the end of Qunūt al-Witr.

[See Tashih al-Dua’ by Shaykh Bakar Abu Zaid, p. 460)]

Qunūt al-Nazilah

When Muslims faced with calamities it is a Sunnah to recite al-Qunut al-Nazilah all the five daily Prayers.

Sheikh Sayyid Sabiq (rahimahullāh) states: It is proven that it is Sunnah to recite al-Qunut aloud in the five daily Prayers at the times when Muslims are faced with calamities.

[Sayyed Sabiq in Fiqh Us-Sunnah]

Abdullah Ibn ‘Abbās (radiyallāhu‘anhu) narrated:"The Messenger of Allāh (sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam) performed the Qunut continuously for one month in the Zuhur, ‘Asar, Maghrib, ‘Isyā’, and Fajar Prayers. He would do so at the end of every prayer, in the last rak’ah after he had said "Sami ‘Allāhu liman hamidah”, he (sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) would supplicate against some of the tribes of Banu Sulaim: Ri‘il, Dhakwan, and ‘Usiyyah. Those that behind him would say: “Amin.””

[Recorded by Abu Dawud; Ahmad who adds: these three tribes had killed the emissaries that the Prophet (sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) sent to them. Ikrimah said: "That was the beginning of the Qunūt”]

Abu Salamah bin Abd al-Rahman heard Abu Hurayrah (radiyallāhu‘anhu) said: “ (When) Allāh Messenger (sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) (wished to invoke curse or blessing on someone, he would do so at the end) of recitation in the dawn solāt, when he had pronounced ‘Allāhu Akbar’ (after ruku’) and then lifted his head (saying ): "Sami ‘Allāhu liman hamidah”; ‘Rabbanā Lakal-hamd’, he would stand up and say: “[O Allāh!] Save: Al-Walid ibn Al-Walid, Salamah ibn Hisham and ‘Ayyash Ibn Abi Rabi‘ah, and the helpless among the believers. O Allāh! Trample the tribe of Mudar severely; O Allāh! Send upon them famine similar (to the drought) of Yusuf." O Allāh! Curse them Lihyan, Ri‘il, Dhakwan, Usayyah for they disobeyed Allāh and His Messenger.” (The narrator adds): Then the news reached us he (sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) abandoned this when this verse was revealed: "It is no concern at all of thee [Muhammad] whether He relents toward them or punishes them, for they are evildoers" (Al-‘Imran: 128)

[Recorded by Muslim (1428), Ahmad, Al-Bukhari and Abu Dawud]

Qunūt al-Nazilah should supplicated appropriate to the situation, even today as it was narrated that the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) Ibn al-Walid, Salama bin Hisham and Ibn Rabi‘ah were imprisoned by the Kuffar Makkans and put to under unspeakable torture when converted to Islam. Mudar was a tribe which was a staunch enemy of Islam and perpetrated atrocities upon Muslim. Lihyan killed six reciters of Quran sent to invite Islam. Ri’il, Dhakwan and Usayyah were the tribe that killed seventy eminent reciters of al-Qur’ān at Bi’r Ma’unah in 4H sends to preach Islam; while the oppressed believers that were the Muslim put under atrocities.

The verse does not imply that invoking of curse upon enemy has been forbidden, but Allāh comforted the Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam). Allāh knows the plan to bring sinners to repentance and to teach them righteousness or punish them for their misdeeds

It was narrated that ‘Umar Al-Khattāb (radiyallāhu‘anhu) said al-Qunūt with the following words:

“Allāhumma inna nasta’īnuka wa nu’minu bika, wa natawakkalu ‘alayka wa nuthni ‘alayka al-khayr, wa lā nakfuruka. Allāhumma iyyaaka na’budu wa laka nusalli wa nasjudu, wa ilayka nas’ā wa nahfid. Narju rahmataka wa nakhsha ‘adzabaka, inna ‘adzabaka al-jadd bil kuffāri mulhaq. Allāhumma ‘adhdzib il-kafarata ahl al-kitāb alladhīna yasuddūna ‘an sabīlika’

(O Allāh, verily we seek Your help, we believe in You, we put our trust in You and we praise You and we are not ungrateful to You. O Allāh, You alone we worship and to You we pray and prostrate, for Your sake we strive. We hope for Your mercy and fear Your punishment, for Your punishment will certainly reach the disbelievers. O Allāh, punish the infidels of the People of the Book who are preventing others from following Your way).”

[Narrated by al-Baihaqi, 2/210; classified as sahih by al-Albāni in al-Irwa’, 2/170]

Al-Albāni (rahimahullāh) said: This was reported from ‘Umar concerning Qunūt in Fajar and it seems that this Qunut is Qunut al-Nazilah (Qunūt at times of calamity) as is indicated by his praying against the kuffār].

[Al-Irwa’, 2/170]

Making Du'ā al-Qunut with additional words

Imam An-Nawawi (rahimahullāh) said: “The correct view which was stated definitively by the majority of scholars is that there are no specific words, rather any duā’ may be said.”

[Al-Majmu’ (3/497)]

Shaykh al-Albāni (rahimahullāh) said: “There is nothing wrong with adding more to this, cursing the infidels and sending blessings upon the Prophet (sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam), and praying for the Muslims.”

[Qiyam Ramadhān by al-Albāni, 31]

A Hadith narrated from Jabir bin Abdullah (radiyallāhu‘anhu), which says that the Prophet (sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “The best of prayer is the long standing al-qunūt”  [Muslim (1257)]

Al-Nawawi (rahimahullāh) also said: “What is meant by Qunūt here is the standing, according to the consensus of the scholars, as far as I know.”

And if a long standing at that point is indeed a Qunūt by definition then it would be worthy to recite a du‘ā' with its content full in Tawhid and submission to Allāh Almighty. An-Nu’man bin Bashir (radiyallāhu ‘anhu) reported that the Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam) said, “Du‘ā is worship.” [Abu Dawud].  Thus it would be appropriate the time for the ‘long standing’ is fill  with a du‘ā. Hence, undobtedly Imam Shafi’ie (rahimahullah) is justified in his view in categorizing Du'a al-Qunut as sunnah ab'adh.
And Allāh Almighty knows best.

[Adapted from Islam Q&A (Fatwa No 20031)]

No comments: