Saturday, May 8, 2010

Sujud al-Tilāwah

Sujud al-Tilāwah

When one recites a verse of prostration is it permissible to stick to tasbih and dzikir instead of Sujud al-Tilāwah (Prostration of Recitation)?

 Is it permissible to limit oneself to saying tasbih (Subhān Allāh wal-hamdu Lillāh wa lā ilāha ill-Allāh wa lā hawla wa lā quwwata illa Billāh - Glory be to Allāh and praise be to Allāh and there is no God but Allāh and there is no power and no strength except in Allāh) four times instead of doing the prostration of recitation? Because it is said that if you come to a verse in which there is a sajdah (prostration), instead of prostrating you can say the tasbih mentioned above. Is there any basis or evidence for this?

In the name of Allāh, Most Gracious, Most Merciful;
All the praise and thanks is due to Allāh, Subhanahu wata`ala. Peace and blessings be upon His Messenger.

It is prescribed believers should performed the Sujud al-Tilāwah (Prostration of Recitation) when the Muslim arrives to a verse in which there is a sajdah. It is prescribed for him to prostrate, whether it is in solāt or outside of it.

Abu Hurayrah
(radiallāhu`anhu) reported that the Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam) said:

“When the son of Adam (‘alaihissalam) recites a verse of prostration and prostrates, the Shaytān withdraws, weeping and saying: Woe unto him - [according to the report of Abu Kuraib (radiallāhu`anhu): Woe unto me]- the son of Adam (‘alaihissalam) was commanded to prostrate and he prostrated, so Paradise will be his; I was commanded to prostrate and I refused, so Hell is mine.”

[Narrated by Muslim (81)]

There are 15 such surahs of al-Qur'an that believers are required to perform Sujud al-Tilāwah. They are in:

Al-A’raf, (7:206); Ar-Ra’d, (13:15); An-Nahl, (16:49); Al-Isra, (17:107); Maryam, (19:58); Al-Hajj, (22:18 and 22:77); Al-Furqan, (25:60); An-Naml, (27:77); As-Sajdah, (32:15); Saad, (38:24); Fussilat, (41:37); An-Najm, (53:62); Al-Inshiqāq, (84:21); and Al-'Alaq, (96:19).

If it is essential for a Muslim to prostrate accordingly and it is not valid to say the tasbih or any other dzikir instead of sujud; rather it should be done in accordance to the Sunnah not otherwise.

It was narrated that ‘Aishah (radiallāhu`anha) reported that the Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam) said:

“Whoever introduces into this matter of ours [i.e acts of worship] anything that is not part of it will have it rejected.”

[Narrated by Al-Bukhari, 2550; Muslim, 1718]

Al-Nawawi (rahimallāh) said: “This hadith represents an important principle of Islam, and it is an example of the concise speech of the Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam), for it clearly rejects every innovation and fabrication.”

The Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam) warned us about newly-invented matters, it an astray:

“The truest of speech is the Book of Allāh; the best guidance is that of Muhammad and the worst of things are those which are newly invented. Every newly-invented thing is a bid‘ah, every bid‘ah is a going astray, and every going astray will end in the Fire of Hell."

[Nasa’ie (1560); Abu Dawud and Tirmidzi: Sahih]

Every innovation in the religion is forbidden and a misguidance.

And the Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam) also said:

“You must adhere to my Sunnah and the way of the Rightly Guided Caliphs. Hold on to it and cling fast to it. And beware of newly-invented matters, for every newly-invented matter is an innovation and every innovation is a going astray.”

[Narrated by Abu Dawud (4607); al-Albāni: sahih]

Ibn Hajar al-Haythami (rahimallāh) was asked about some saying, “We hear and obey, Your forgiveness Our Lord, and to You is our destiny” when not doing the prostration for a verse of prostration because not in a state of purity or is unable to prostrate.

Ibn Hajar (rahimallāh) replied: “There is no basis for it; and, it cannot take the place of the prostration; rather that is makruh to do that, because nothing concerning that was narrated [in the Sunnah]”

[Al-Fatawa al-Fiqhiyyah al-Kubra, 1/194]

Shaikh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (rahimallāh) was asked: “When we recite al-Quran and reach the verse of sajdah and in a place that is not possible to prostrate, we say: Lā ilāha ill-Allāh wahdahu laa shareeka lah, lahul-mulku wa lahulhamdu wa huwa ‘ala kulli shay’in Qadeer (There is no god but Allāh alone, with no partner or associate. His is the Dominion and to Him be praise, and He is able to do all things) four times. Is that permissible? If it is not, what should we do?

Ibn ‘Uthaymeen replied: “When the reciter reaches to a verse of prostration, and if he is in a place which permits him to prostrate, it is mustahabb for him to prostrate, but it is not obligatory; this is the correct opinion, because it is proven that ‘Umar Ibn Al-Khattab (radiallāhu`anhu) recited a verse of sajdah when delivering the khutbah on a Friday, and he came down from the minbar and prostrated, later he recited it on the following Friday and did not prostrate, and he said: Allāh has not enjoined us to prostrate unless we want. And when he did not prostrate, he did not say something instead of prostrating, because that is an innovation. The evidence that is that Zaid Ibn Thabit (radiallāhu`anhu) recited Surah An-Najm in the presence of the Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam) and he did not prostrate, and the Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam) did not teach him to say anything instead of prostrating”.

[Fatawa Islamiyyah, 4/66]

One who is doing Sujud al-Tilāwah should say Takbir when going down, because of the hadith narrated from Ibn ‘Umar (radiallāhu`anhu) who said:

“The Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam) used to recite Qur’an to us, and if he reached a verse where a sajdah was prescribed, he would say Takbir and prostrate and we would do likewise.”

[Reported Abu Dawud, Ahmad, 2/17; al-Bukhari, 2/33, 34; Muslim, 1/405, no. 575)]

No Takbir when rising up.

He should not say Takbir when rising up from the sujud, because there is no evidence from hadith from the Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam) to indicate as such as that, and it is because Sujud al-Tilāwah is an act of worship, and acts of worship are to be done in accordance with what is prescribed in shari’ah. It was reported from the Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam) was Takbir only when going down into Sujud al-Tilāwah, not when rising up.

Sujud al-Tilāwah in solāt

But if is in solah, he should say takbīr both when going down and rising up, because of the general meaning of the sahih ahaadith which describe the prayer of the Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam) and state that he said Takbir each time he went down into sujud or going up. It is part of the solāh. One should do as the prophet (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam) said: “Pray as you have seen me praying.” [Narrated by Al-Bukhari (631)]

Ibn Qadāmah (rahimallāh) said concerning Sujud al-Tilāwah: “He should say in this sujud similar to what he says in the sujud during prayer” (Al-Mughni, 2/362)

[ i.e “Subhāna Rabbiy al-A’lā” (Glory be to my Lord, the Most High) three times, or “Subhāna Rabbiy al a’lā wa bihamdihi” (How Perfect is my Lord, the Most High, and Praised be He), or, “Allāhumma laka sajadtu wa bika āmantu wa laka aslamtu, Sajada wajhi lillahi khalaqahu wa sawwarahu wa shaqqa sam’ahu wa basarahu, tabāraka Allāh ahsan ul-khāliqeen” (O Allāh, unto You I prostrate, in You I believe and to You I submit. My face has prostrated to the One who created and formed it, and gave it hearing and sight. Blessed be Allāh, the best of creators).]

Muslim is enjoined to prostrate when the reciter reaches to a verse of prostration, it is called Sujud al-Tilāwah. A good Muslim will follow it. In the solāh it should be done accordingly as the Prophet’s solāt.

And Allāh Almighty knows best.

[Adapted with modifications from Fatwa No: 131299 Islam Q&A]

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