Thursday, June 21, 2007

Forgiveness: Attribute of a Muslim

Description: Allah commanded mankind to fear and obey Allah, accustomed to patience, and reconcile the matters of difference between us and hold fast together to the Rope of Allah and do not split-up. Ibn Taimiyyah, a great Muslim scholar had made a succinct deliberation on the matter which is indeed worthy to revisit and share, God Willing.

By Ibn Taimiyyah

In the Name of Allah, the Most Merciful, the Bestower of Mercy. Indeed it is Allah the Exalted, to whom belongs all praise, who has bestowed upon me immense grace, great favours and generous blessings which necessitates immense gratitude, being firm upon obedience to him, and becoming accustomed to having graceful patience in that which He ordered.

The Essence of Patience

Indeed, a servant is ordered to have sabar (patience) in times of ease more so than in times of hardship.[1] Allah the Most Exalted said:

“But if we let man taste the good favours after poverty and harm have touched him, he is sure to boastfully say: Harm has departed from me. Indeed he is exultant, boastful and ungrateful to Allah, except for those who observe patience and perform righteous deeds, for them will be forgiveness and a great reward.” [Surah Hud, 11:10-11]

‘It is not righteousness that ye turn your faces Towards east or West; but it is righteousness - to believe in Allah and the Last Day, and the Angels, and the Book, and the Messengers; to spend of your substance, out of love for Him, for your kin, for orphans, for the needy, for the wayfarer, for those who ask, and for the ransom of slaves; to be steadfast in prayer, and practice regular charity [ zakat]; to fulfil the contracts which ye have made; and to be firm and patient, in pain (or suffering) and adversity, and throughout all periods of panic [horror]. Such are the people of truth, the Allah fearing.”[Surah Al-Baqarah, 2:177]

And you all know that Allah, the Most Perfect has blessed this affair [2] with such blessings which contain the means to aid His Religion, raise high His Word, aid His Army, and grant honour to His Awliya' (pious and righteous servants). It is also the cause for strengthening Ahlus-Sunnah wal-Jama’ah and causing humiliation to the people of innovations and sectarianism. Likewise, it is also the cause of affirming that which has been affirmed by yourselves from the Sunnah (regarding the truth of this matter), and a cause for increasing this by opening up the avenues of guidance, victory and proofs; such that the truth becomes known to the people, who none but Allah can enumerate. It is also a cause for the masses to begin to accept the way of the Sunnah and the Jama’ah ; as well as countless other favours. All of this must therefore be accompanied by immense gratitude to Allah, as well as having patience – even if this patience is in times of ease.

Forgiveness and Reconciliation.

And you all know that from the great principles which sum up the Religion is: Uniting the hearts, unifying the word, and reconciling between each other, as Allah, the Most Exalted said:

“So fear and obey Allah, and reconcile the matters of difference between yourselves.” [Surah Al-Anfaal 8:10]

“And hold fast together to the Rope of Allah and do not split-up.” [Surah Ali-‘Imran, 3:103]

“And do not be like those who split-up and differed after clear proofs came to them. For those there will be a severe punishment.” [Surah Ali-‘Imran, 3:105]

And other examples like this from the texts (of Revelation), which order us with the Jama’ah (upon the way of the Companions) and coming together, and prohibit splitting and differing. And the people who most exemplify this principle are Ahlul-Jama’ah (the people of the Jama’ah ), just as the people who most exemplify leaving it are the people of sectarianism.

And that which sums up the Sunnah is: obedience to the Messenger. This is why the Prophet SAW said: “Indeed Allah is pleased with three things: That you worship Allah alone without associating any partner along with Him; that you hold fast altogether to the Rope of Allah and not to become split-up; and that you give sincere advise to whomever Allah put in charge of your affairs.” [ Muslim (3/1340) and Ahmad (2/367)

And in the Sunan collections from the hadith of Zaid Ibn Thabit and Ibn Mas’ud who were both great Fuqaha (Scholars of deep understanding) who relate that the Prophet SAW said: “May Allah enliven whosoever hears my words, memorizes them and conveys them to others. Many a carrier of knowledge does not understand it, and many a carrier of knowledge carries it to one who has better understanding. There are three things which the heart of the Believer has no malice about: Sincerity for Allah in one’s action; sincere advice to those in authority, and clinging to the Jama’ah .” [ Ahmad (4/80) and Ibn Majah (no. 320). It was authenticated by al-Albani in as-Sahihah (no. 404)]

And his saying, ‘...has no malice,’ means not having any contempt for them. So the heart of a Muslim does not have these characteristics. On the contrary, it loves and is pleased with them.

So the first thing which I shall begin with regarding this principle is what is connected to myself. So you all should know – may Allah be pleased with you all – that I do not desire any harm at all – inwardly, nor outwardly – for anyone from amongst the general masses of the Muslims, let alone our colleagues and companions. Nor do I harbour any ill-feeling towards any one of them, nor do I blame them for anything at all. Rather, to me they are deserving of nobility, love, honour and respect, over and over – each in accordance to their level. And a person cannot be except (one of three types): Someone who sincerely strives to ascertain the truth; and is correct, or one who sincerely strives to ascertain the truth; but errs, or a sinful person. As for the first, then he is rewarded and thanked. The second is rewarded for his ijtihad (striving to ascertain the truth), and is forgiven and excused for his error. As for the third, then may Allah forgive us, and him, and all the Believers.

So we should try not to dwell upon the words of those who opposed this fundamental; by saying that so and so is deficient, or so and so did not act, or so and so was the cause of harm to the Shaikh, or was the reason why all this occurred, or so and so used to speak about the plots of so and so; and other such similar statements which contain criticism of some of our colleagues and brothers. For indeed I do not allow them to harm the brothers and colleagues in this manner, and there is no might, nor power, except with Allah. [3] Rather, the likes of this criticism usually returns to the one who said it in the first place, unless he has good deeds by which Allah will forgive him – if He wills – and indeed Allah does forgive that which has preceded. And you also all know about the harsh treatment that was given to some of the brothers in Damascus, and that which occurs even now in Egypt. This, in reality , is not due to a deficiency or shortcoming in the brothers, nor has it occurred because we have changed our views and hate them. Rather, such people, after receiving such harsh treatment, increase in the status, love, and respect that we have for them. For indeed, the likes of these trials are beneficial to the Believers, because Allah corrects and improves them due to it. Since the Believer to another Believer is like each of a pair of hands, each washes the other. However, it happens that sometimes happens that dirt cannot be removed except with a certain amount of roughness, but that brings about cleanliness and softness, for which that roughness is praised...

You (also) all know that much of what has occurred in this matter were lies, false accusations, false suspicions, and the following of false desires, the likes of which cannot be described. So all those lies and false accusations that were directed against me, were actually a source of goodness and blessing for me. Allah, the Most High said:

“Indeed those who brought forward the lie are a small group amongst you. However, do not think that it is an evil for you. Rather, it is good for you. And every person from amongst them will be paid the sin of what they earned. And as for the one who took on the leading role in this, his will be a severe punishment.” [Surah An-Nur, 24:11]

So though such trials, Allah the most Exalted manifests the light of truth and its clear proofs, which repel the falsehood and lies. So I do not take revenge upon any of those who lied against me, oppressed me, or showed enmity and hatred towards me. For indeed I forgive every Muslim, and I love only the good for them, and I desire for every Muslim the good that I desire for myself. And as for those who lied and did wrong, then I have excused and forgiven them. However, whatever is connected to violating the Rights of Allah Almighty in this affair, then they should seek tawbah (repentance). So if they turn to Allah in repentance, then Allah will turn to them in forgiveness, otherwise, the Judgement of Allah will apply to them. So if a person were to be thanked for his evil actions, then I thank all those who were the cause for this (trial) to happen to me – for it entails all the good of this world and the Hereafter. However, Allah is thanked for His good blessing and favour by which no affair happens to a Believer, except that, there is good for him in it. And the people of good intentions are thanked for their intentions, and the people of good actions are thanked for their actions. As for those who did evil then we ask Allah that He turns to them in forgiveness. And you all know that this is from my nature and character.

Likewise, you all know that Abu Bakar as-Siddiq r.a, concerning the matter of al-Ifq, the lie against ‘Aishah, his daughter, the wife of the Prophet SAW, about which Allah SWT revealed some ayat of the Glorious Qur‘an , so he swore that he would not give anymore charity to Mistah Ibn Athathah, because Mistah was one of those who participated in the Lie. So Allah revealed:

“And let not those amongst you who have been blessed with grace and wealth swear not to give any wealth or support to their relatives, or to the poor and needy, or to those who migrated in the Path of Allah. Rather, let them pardon and be forgiving. Do you not love that Allah should forgive you? And Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.” [Surah An-Nur, 24:22]

So when this ayah was revealed, Abu Bakar said: “Rather, by Allah! I love that Allah should forgive me.” So he continued to give to Mistah the aid and charity that he used to give before. [ Al-Bukhari (no. 4757) ]

The Criterion of Righteousness

So with forgiveness and kind treatment towards one another, and carrying out Jihad (fighting and striving) in the Path of Allah, then it is a must that:

“Allah will bring a people whom He will love, and love Him; soft, humble and gentle with the Believers, stern towards the unbelievers, fighting the Path of Allah, and never afraid of the blame of the blamers. That is the Grace of Allah that He bestows upon whomsoever He wills. And Allah suffices for the needs of His creation, the All-Knower. Indeed your Wali (protector and guardian) is Allah, His Messenger and the Believers; those who offer the Prayer correctly, and give Zakat, and who bow down in obedience to Allah. And whoever takes Allah, and His Messenger, and the Believers as protectors and guardians, then it is the party of Allah who will be victorious.” [Surah Al-Maidah, 55:53]

" It is not righteousness that ye turn your faces Towards east or West; but it is righteousness- to believe in Allah and the Last Day, and the Angels, and the Book, and the Messengers; to spend of your substance, out of love for Him, for your kin, for orphans, for the needy, for the wayfarer, for those who ask, and for the ransom of slaves; to be steadfast in prayer, and practice regular charity; to fulfil the contracts which ye have made; and to be firm and patient, in pain (or suffering) and adversity, and throughout all periods of panic. Such are the People of Truth, the Allah fearing.”[Surah Al-Baqarah, 2:177]

Was-salamu ’alaikum wa rahmatullaahi wa barakatuh .


[1] Majmu’ul-Fatwa (28/50-57), abridged version

[2] The affair being referred to is the first of Ibn Taimiyyah’s unjust imprisonment – a period of one and a half years, in the year 705H – which occurred due to some lies and false accusations against him.

[3] This is in reference to some of their colleagues and brothers in Damascus, who weakened during this ordeal, and did not remain firm upon the correct methodology. So Ibn Taimiyyah is prohibiting any of his students and colleagues from harming them in any way, and he makes an excuse for them, and explains that he bears no ill-feeling or hatred in his heart towards any of them. Rather, he makes it clear that he has respect for them, and that he loves them for the sake of Allah.


No comments: