Friday, May 11, 2007

The Wives Of The Prophet

The Wives Of The Prophet

Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful;
All the praise and Thanks is due to Allāh, the Lord of the al-ā’lameen. I testify that there is none worthy of worship except Allāh, and that Muhammad, Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam, is His Messenger.

Description: The wives of Prophet Muhammad (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)   hold a special place in Islamic piety. The Qur’ān calls them “Mothers of the Faithful” [Surah Al-Ahzab, 33:6]. They were his wives in his life and shall be in the life to come. They were young and old, widows and virgins, poor and wealthy, aristocrats and freed slaves. Each one played their specific role in forming the history of Islam.

1. Khadijah binti Khuwailid (radiyallāhu’anha).

Khadijah (radiyallāhu’anha), was the first lady that Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) got married. He was twenty-five, while she had reached the age of forty. She was a widow. He was at the peak of his youth. Impressed by Muhammad’s honesty and moral character, she sends a relative to propose the marriage. They were married for twenty five years until her death. Through every persecution, Khadijah was his sole companion and helper.

Khadijah, along with ‘Aishah(radiyallāhu’anha), played a major contribution in the establishment and spread of the Islamic civilization. All his children were born from her, except Ibrāhim. ‘Aishah (radiyallāhu’anha)said: “I never felt jealous of any of the wives of the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)   as I did of Khadijah (radiyallāhu’anha), although she died before he married me, because of what I heard him say about her.”

Khadijah (radiyallāhu’anha),was the first person to embrace Islam. She came from a noble family. Her father, Khuwailid,was one of the most honoured leaders of their tribe. Her husband died left her as a wealthy lady of Makkah. When Muhammad was young, she entrusted him to trade missions to Syria. Muhammad known for his honesty, truthfulness and trustworthiness, returned from Syria with large profit. Impressed with the account of his journey, she soon decided to propose him as her husband. Many eminent nobles of the Quraish had proposed to her earlier but she turned them down. Muhammad and Khadijah were married when Prophet's uncle, Abu Talib bin Abdul Muttalib gave his blessing.

For fifteen years, they lived together happily and Khadijah (radiyallāhu’anha), bore seven children. Their first child, a son whom they named Qasim, died when he was only two years old. Two more sons, Taib and Tahir, but they too died in their infancy. Muhammad and Khadijah also had four daughters who survived: Zainab, Ruqaiyah, Umm Kalthum and Fātimah.

Khadijah (radiyallāhu’anha) was a constant source of help and comfort for Prophet Muhammad (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) through the difficulties which he had to endure. All her wealth was spent in the way of Allāh in helping to spread the Message of Islam, to free slaves who had embraced Islam, and to feed and shelter the community of Muslims that slowly began to grow in numbers and strength.

After a great deal of hard work and sincere effort, Khadijah (radiyallāhu’anha) reached a high level and an exalted position amongst the Muslims. It was related by Abu Hurayrah, (radiyallāhu’anhu), that on one occasion when Khadijah (radiyallāhu’anha)  was still alive, Jibril came to the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)   and said:

"O Messenger of Allāh! Khadijah is coming with a bowl of soup [or food or drink] for you. When she comes to you, give her greetings of peace from her Lord and from me, and give her the good news of a Palace of Jewels in the Garden, where there will be neither any noise nor any tiredness."

'Ali bin Abu Talib (radiyallāhu’anhu)  narrated the Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)   said: 

"The best of the world's women is Maryam (Mary) in her lifetime. The best of the world's women is Khadijah [in her lifetime]."

Khadijah (radiyallāhu’anha) lived as an honorable, free woman and died as a merciful believing woman, for the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said after her death: 

"Allāh has not blessed me with a woman like Khadijah: she believed in me at a time when people were disbelievers; she comforted me by her money at a time when people prohibited me; and Allāh has blessed me with children from only her, amongst all of my wives."

2. Sawdah binti Zam’ah ibn Qais (radiyallāhu’anha).

The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) married Sawdah binti Zam’ah (radiyallāhu’anha), in Syawwal 10th year of his Prophethood. It was after the death of Khadijah (radiyallāhu’anha), the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) returned from an unsuccessful mission in Taif, helpless and persecuted. Prior to it she was married to her paternal cousin of hers As-Sakran bin ‘Amr(radiyallāhu’anhu).

Sawdah (radiyallāhu’anha) a widow, who possessed neither beauty, nor social status, nor wealth. She had been forced to escape to Abyssinia with her husband from the persecution of pagan Makkans to find some security. Her husband As-Sakran bin ‘Amr(radiyallāhu’anhu) died in exile, giving his life for the sake of his faith. He had migrated with his wife from his home for the cause of his religion, and he left her in utter poverty.

Driven by a sense of generosity, the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) married her, raising her to the spiritual level of “Mother of the Faithful.” The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) marries ‘Aishah (radiyallāhu’anha) after Sawdah. Sawdah binti Zam’ah (radiyallāhu’anha) died a few years after the death of Prophet Muhammad. [Ibn Kathir]

3. ‘Aishah binti Abu Bakar As-Siddiq (radiyallāhu’anha).

The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)   married ‘Aishah binti Abu Bakar As-Siddiq in Syawwal of the 11th year of the Prophethood, a year after marriage to Sawdah, two years and half before Hijrah. ‘Aishah (radiyallāhu’anha), said: “The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) married me when I was six years old, and consummated the marriage with me when I was nine [14th year of Prophethood].” The Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) did not marry any virgin apart from her. [Al-Bukhari]

‘Aishah (radiyallāhu’anha) was the daughter of his intimate friend Abu Bakar As-Siddiq(radiyallāhu’anhu), who accompanied the Prophet’s emigrating from Makkah to Al-Madinah. Abu Bakar was a well-known honorable wealthy merchant and respected by the Makkans Quraish. Abu Bakar was well mannered, and most generous. 'Aishah's mother was called Umm Rumman binti 'Umair bin 'Amir bin Al-Harith bin Ghanam bin Ka’ab and she was among the first group who embraced Islam. She had been married to 'Abdullah bin 'Abdul Assad before she married Abu Bakar, and she had a son from her first husband called At-Tufail, and she gave birth to 'Aishah and 'Abdul Rahman from Abu Bakar As-Siddiq. When Umm Rumman died, Abu Bakar As-Siddiq (radiyallāhu’anhu) said: "O Allāh! You know best how Umm Rumman was hurt for your sake and the sake of Your Prophet." The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam), used to entrust 'A'ishah to Umm Rumman's charge and say: “O Umm Rumman, be kind to 'Aishah and be mindful of me by this kindness.”

It was Khawlah binti Hakim Al-Aslamiah who suggested to Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)   marrying ‘Aishah which he agreed. Khawlah went to Umm Rumman to tell her and said: “O Umm Rumman, you cannot imagine how Allāh has blessed your house! The Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) sent me to seek 'Aishah for marriage.”

When Abu Bakar As-Siddiq (radiyallāhu’anhu) came back, Khawlah told him the news and he said: “Is she suitable for him? Is she niece for him?” Khawlah then went back to the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam), and told him what Abu Bakar had told her, and he, said: “Go back and tell Abu Bakar that he is my brother in Islam and I am his, and his daughter is good enough for me.”

After consideration Abu Bakar As-Siddiq (radiyallāhu’anhu) went to see Mut'am bin 'Uday, who had proposed ‘Aishah (radiyallāhu’anha)  for his son Jubair. These people were still disbelievers. Mut’am said: “O son of Abu Quanah, we fear that if our son marrying your daughter 'Aishah, she would convince him to adopt Islam and we do not like it to happen.” Abu Bakar As-Siddiq (radiyallāhu’anhu) did not answer them but he was very pleased with it, he would absolve their promise and could give his full agreement to Prophet’s proposal.

'Aishah (radiyallāhu’anha) narrated: “The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) came to our house, and many people gathered there to meet him. Then my mother came to me while I was playing, she took me to the door where the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) was sitting. I was so embarrassed and I melted in shyness. Then my mother put me beside the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) and said: ‘This is your wife, may Allāh bless her for you, and bless you for her.’ People then left the room, and at that night nothing was slaughtered for me and I was nine years old at that time.”

Although 'Aishah (radiyallāhu’anha)  was young, she was a mature girl who had reached puberty. People described 'Aishah (radiyallāhu’anha) on her wedding day and said: “She was a nimble, wide-eyed bride, with curly hair and a shiny face.”

'Aishah (radiyallāhu’anha) was a young girl, but she was very quick to learn, for she had a clear heart, a quick mind and an accurate memory. 'Aishah (radiyallāhu’anha) was not afraid to talk back in order to find out the truth or make it known, and whenever she beat someone else in argument, the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) would smile and say: “She is the daughter of Abu Bakar!”

Musa bin Talhah (radiyallāhu’anhu)  said: “I have not seen anyone more eloquent than 'Aishah.” 'Aishah (radiyallāhu’anha) became so wise that one of her contemporaries used to say that if the knowledge of 'Aishah (radiyallāhu’anha)   were placed on one side of the scales and that of all other women on the other, 'Aishah's side would outweigh the others. 'Aishah (radiyallāhu’anha) used to sit with the other women and pass on the knowledge that she had received from the Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam). 'Aishah (radiyallāhu’anha) was a source of knowledge and wisdom for both women and men long after the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) died and as long as she lived. Abu Musa (radiyallāhu’anhu) once said: 

“Whenever a report appeared doubtful to us [the Companions of the Prophet(Sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam)] and we asked 'Aishah (radiyallāhu’anha) about it, we always learned something from her about it.”

In addition to being extremely intelligent, 'Aishah (radiyallāhu’anha) became a very graceful young woman. When 'Aishah (radiyallāhu’anha) first came to live in the Prophet's household as a young girl, a strong and lasting friendship grew up between her and Sawdah, and Sawdah (radiyallāhu’anha) took care of her along with the rest of the household. When 'Aishah (radiyallāhu’anha) grew up, Sawdah (radiyallāhu’anha) who was by then an old woman, gave up her share of the Prophet's time in favor of 'Aishah (radiyallāhu’anha)  and was content to manage his household and be Umm al Mu’minin, ‘The Mother of the Believers'- a title of respect that was given to all the wives of the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) which confirmed what the Qur’ān  clearly states that no man could marry any of them after they had been married to the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)   :

“The Prophet is more worthy of the believers than themselves, and his wives are [in the position of] their mothers.” [Surah Al-Ahzab, 33:6]

During the nine years that ‘Aishah (radiyallāhu’anha) was married to Prophet, (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam),   she witnessed many of the great events that shaped the destiny of the first Muslim community of Al-Madinah al-Munawarah: It was during the course of their marriage that the direction of the Qiblah was changed from Jerusalem to Makkah, thereby distinguishing the Muslims more clearly from Jews and Christians. It was during the course of their marriage that she must have listened too many of the Jews, Christians and idol worshippers who came not to listen to the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam), but to argue with him, in the hope that they could find a plausible excuse to justify their rejection of him. It was through exchanges such as these that ‘Aishah learned to distinguish what was true from what was false.

As the prophetic guidance continued to be revealed through the Prophet Muhammad (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) 'Aishah's way of life, along with that of all the Muslims, was gradually reshaped and refined. It was during the course of their marriage that drinking alcohol was finally forbidden, it was made clear what food was allowed [Halal] and what was prohibited [Haram], it became necessary for women to wear the Hijab in public and while solat, guidance regarding how to fast was revealed, paying the Zakat became obligatory on all Muslims and all rites of Hajj were purified and clarified.

In fact, every aspect of life, from birth to death and everything that happens in between -- was illuminated by the way in which the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)   behaved. It was this way of behavior [the Sunnah], that 'Aishah (radiyallāhu’anha)  helped to preserve and protect, not only by embodying it herself, but also by teaching it to others.

The life of ‘Aishah (radiyallāhu’anha)  is proof that a woman can be far more learned than men and that she can be the teacher of scholars and experts. Her life is also a proof that a woman can exert influence over men and women and provide them with inspiration and leadership. Her life is also proof that the same woman can retain her feminist and be a source of pleasure, joy and comfort to her husband.

The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) died on her lap, whereupon ‘Aishah (radiyallāhu’anha)   said: “He died between my chest and my neck, and then I put his head on a pillow when people became very quiet while I was mourning and suffering deep sadness.”

'Aishah (radiyallāhu’anha)  did not have any children. Aishah was a leading scholar of Islam and played a pivotal role in the establishment of the Islamic civilization. 'Aishah (radiyallāhu’anha)   taught for forty years after the death of the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) until her death at the age of sixty-seven.

4. Hafsah binti ‘Umar bin Al Khattab (radiyallāhu’anha).

‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar (radiyallāhu’anhu) narrated that Hafsah’s husband Kunay ibn Hudhaifah As-Sahmi (radiyallāhu’anhu), who was one of the companions of the Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)  and had been present at Badar, died in Madinah.‘Umar ibn al-Khattab (radiyallāhu’anhu)  said: I met ‘Uthman ibn ‘Affan (radiyallāhu’anhu)  and offered Hafsah to him in marriage. I said: If you wish, I will marry Hafsah bint ‘Umar to you. He said: I will think about it. Several nights passed, and then he said: I think that I do not want to get married at this time. ‘Umar said: Then I met Abu Bakar and I said: If you wish, I will marry Hafsah bint ‘Umar to you. Abu Bakar kept quiet and did not give me any response. I was more upset about him than about ‘Uthman. Several nights passed, then the Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)   proposed to her and I married her to him. Then Abu Bakar met me and said: Perhaps you felt upset when you offered Hafsah in marriage to me and I did not reply? I said: Yes. He said: Nothing prevented me from responding to your offer but the fact that I knew that the Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)   had mentioned her, and I did not want to disclose the secret of the Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam). If he had decided not to marry her, I would have accepted your offer. [Al-Bukhari].

Hafsah Bint ‘Umar (radiyallāhu’anha)  was born five years before the Messenger of Allāh, became a Prophet. She was six years older than her brother ‘Abdullah ibn ‘Umar (radiyallāhu’anhu). She was a beautiful and pious woman. Her first marriage was to Kunay Ibn Huthafah Ibn Qais as-Salami (radiyallāhu’anhu)  who was from Quraish. He took part in the two emigrations [to Abyssinia and Al-Madinah). He fought in the battles of Badar and Uhud. In the latter battle he was fatally wounded and died shortly thereafter in Al-Madinah. Hafsah was 18 years old at that time.

‘Umar ibn al-Khattab (radiyallāhu’anhu)  was depressed because of his daughter's affliction, since she had become a widow at such a young age. Whenever he went home and saw his sad daughter, he grieved. After thinking for a long period, he decided to choose a husband for her, to provide her with what she had lost of repose for six months or more.

‘Umar approached Abu Bakar the dearest person to the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam), and offered her hand in marriage to him. ‘Umar thought that Abu Bakar would not refuse to marry a young, pious woman who was the daughter of the man by whom Allāh supported Islam. Having sympathetically listened to him, Abu Bakar did not respond. ‘Umar went back with a broken heart and almost did not believe what had happened. He then went to 'Uthman Ibn ‘Affan whose wife, Ruqaiyah the daughter of the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam), had recently died. ‘Uthman apologized by saying: "I think I would not like to marry at the present time." ‘Umar's gloom increased by 'Uthman's refusal.

He became upset and angry with his two companions, mentioning it to the Prophet, (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam), complaining about Abu Bakar and ‘Uthman. Thereupon the Prophet, (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam), smiled and said: "Hafsah will get a husband who is better than 'Uthman and 'Uthman will get a wife better than Hafsah." [Al-Bukhari]

After that, the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam), he married Hafsah and ‘Uthman in turn married Umm Kalthum, the Prophet’s other daughter. Accordingly, ‘Umar was elated to receive such a great honor which he had never imagined possible, earlier. He went off to tell the good news to whomever he met.

When Abu Bakar met him, he realized the source of his joy. ‘Umar told him of his unhappiness at Abu Bakar's refusal to reply when he had offered Hafsah's hand to him. Abu Bakar congratulated him and apologized by saying: "Do not be angry with me, ‘Umar, the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam), mentioned about Hafsah before, and I could not disclose the secret of the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam). Had he refused her, I would have married her."

The people of Al-Madinah were pleased with the Prophet’s (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)   marriage to Hafsah Bint ‘Umar (radiyallāhu’anha). It was contracted in the month of Sya'aban in the 3rd of Hijrah. Thus, Hafsah joined the rank of the pure wives of the Prophet, the Mothers of the Believers, who were by then, Sawdah and ‘Aishah; and became a member of the household of the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam). Sawdah was happy to see her but 'Aishah was upset because Hafsah was within her age group and she feared that Hafsah would share the love of the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam). ‘Umar knew very well that the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) loved ‘Aishah more than any of the other wives and at times tried to make his daughter aware of this fact. ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab (radiyallāhu’anhu)  once said to her: "You are not like 'Aishah and your father are not like her father."

When the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam), deserted his wives because they became too demanding, ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab (radiyallāhu’anhu)  once again advised Hafsah to be careful saying: "You should not be deceived by the one who has been motivated by her beauty and the love of the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam), for her [‘Aishah]."

When the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam), married his other wives ‘Aishah (radiyallāhu’anha)  began to realize that her protestations were in vain and she made a friend of Hafsah. Among the other wives of the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam), ‘Aishah was the most intimate and the closest one to Hafsah. It was Hafsah and ‘Aishah who supported each other against the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam), in a domestic intrigue which is mentioned in the Qur’ān .

It is also mentioned in a tradition reported in the book of Imam Al-Bukhari, 'Aishah (radiyallāhu’anha)  narrated: “Allāh's Messenger (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam), used to drink honey in the house of Zainab Binti Jahsh (radiyallāhu’anha) and would stay there with her. So Hafsah and I agreed secretly that if he comes to either of us she would say to him: 'It seems you have eaten Maghafir [a kind of flower whose nectar is sucked by the honey bee, and has slightly bad smell] for I smell in you the smell of Maghafir,' [we did so] and he replied: 'No, but I was drinking honey in the house of Zainab, the daughter of Jahsh, and I shall never take it again. I have taken an oath as to that, and you should not tell anybody about it.’”

The idea was to suggest to him that this bad smell came from his mouth because of his taking that particular honey. The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)   has always disliked strong smells especially on his breath. He then forbade honey unto himself for which Allāh revealed:

"O Prophet, why do you prohibit [yourself from] what Allāh has made lawful for you, seeking the approval of your wives? And Allāh is Forgiving and Merciful. Allāh has already ordained for you [Muslims) the dissolution of your oaths. And Allāh is your Protector, and He is The Knowing, The Wise." [Surah At-Tahrim, 66: 1-2]

According to Imam Al-Bukhari, Hafsah (radiyallāhu’anha)  was a bit short-tempered and sometimes would even answer the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam), back. One day, her father, ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab (radiyallāhu’anhu)  who had come to know this, went to her and asked: "I have heard that you talk to the Noble Prophet, as if you were on an equal footing with him. Is it true?" Hafsah replied: "Of course! I do". ’Umar said: "My daughter, I warn you of Allāh's punishment. Do not compete with ‘A'ishah, who is proud of her beauty due to the Prophet’s, love for her."

Hafsah (radiyallāhu’anha)  would never hesitate in asking the Noble Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam), questions on any topic or problem. Once the Prophet(Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam), said: “The companions of Badar and Hudaibiyah will not enter Hell.”

Hafsah (radiyallāhu’anha)  quickly said: "O Prophet! Allāh Says that every one of you will pass over Hell."

The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam),answered her:“Yes! But Allāh also says in Surah Maryam: "Then We will save those who feared Allāh and leave the wrongdoers within it, on their knees.” [Surah Maryam, 19:72]

The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) divorced Hafsah once when she sided against him and disclosed his secret [as mentioned earlier, in the story regarding ‘A’ishah and the Prophet’s oath not to drink honey]. But Jibril came to him, and told him to take her back and said: “Take Hafsah back because she is keeping fasts and is observing prayer in the last parts of the night, and she is going to be your wife in Paradise.”

Allāh Says: “And [remember] when the Prophet confided to one of his wives a statement; and when she informed [another] of it and Allāh showed it to him, he made known part of it and ignored a part. And when he informed her about it, she said: ‘Who told you this?’ He said: ‘I was informed by the All-Knowing, the Acquainted.’ If you two (wives) repent to Allāh, (it is best), for your hearts have deviated. But if you cooperate against him – then indeed Allāh is his Protector, and Gabriel and the righteous of the believers and the angels, moreover, are [his] assistants.” [Surah At-Tahrim, 66: 3-4]

Ibn ‘Abbas (radiyallāhu’anhum) narrated: “For the whole year I had the desire to ask ‘Umar bin al-Khattab regarding the explanation of a verse [in Surah At-Tahrim], but I could not ask him because I respected him very much. When he went to perform Hajj, I too went along with him. On our return while we were still on the way home ‘Umar went aside to answer the call of nature by the Arak trees. I waited until he had finished then I proceeded with him and asked him: ‘O Chief of the Believers, who were the two wives of the Prophet, who aided one another against him?’ He said: ‘They were Hafsah and ‘Aishah.' Then I said to him: 'By Allāh. I wanted to ask you about this a year ago, but I could not do so owing to my respect for you.' ‘Umar said: 'Do not refrain from asking me. If you think that I have knowledge [about a certain matter], ask me; and if I know [something about it], I will tell you.'”

Hafsah (radiyallāhu’anhu) realized the gravity of what she had done to her noble husband when she disclosed his secret. However, after the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam), forgave her, she lived in tranquility and repose again.

Hafsah (radiyallāhu’anhu)  seemed to be much attached and close to her father, who used to consult her in matters relating to women. Once he noticed a woman reciting poetry about her husband who was away on Jihad. ‘Umar was disturbed, and asked Hafsah how long a woman may remain without her husband. She said six months, upon which ‘Umar issued a decree to all of his commanders to relieve every warrior after every six months.

When the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam), died and Abu Bakar As-Siddiq(radiyallahu’anhu) succeeded him, it was Hafsah bint ‘Umar Al-Khattab who was chosen to keep the first copy of the Noble Qur’ān . Hafsah bint ‘Umar (radiyallahu’anha) continued worshipping Allāh devoutly, fasting, praying, and keeping the copy of the Muslims’ constitution, the immortal miracle and the source of legislation and belief: the Qur’ān .

When the second compilation of the Qur’ān  was made during the caliphate of ‘Uthman she was asked to bring that copy, which she did, after putting the condition that when the work was completed, her copy would be returned to her. After the standard copy was made, ‘Uthman had decided that all the different versions of the Qur’ān  should be destroyed, but he was unable to do it with Hafsah's copy because of the condition she had attached. It was only after her death that the copy was discovered and destroyed.

Hafsah Bint ‘Umar (radiyallāhu’anha)  occupies a high position as far as scholarship and piety are concerned. She reported 60 Hadiths from the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam). Out of these, four are agreed upon, six are in the book of Imam Muslim and the remaining are in the other books of traditions. When her father, ’Umar, the Caliph of the Muslims, was about to die after being stabbed by Abu Lu'lu'ah the Zoroastrian in the month of Dzul-Hijjah 23 AH, Hafsah was the guardian of what he left of inheritance.

Hafsah Bint ‘Umar (radiyallāhu’anha)  took custody of all his important documents including his copy of the Glorious Qur’ān , which was compiled during the time of Abu Bakar's Caliphate. Before her death, she made a will to ‘Abdullah bin ‘Umar (radiyallāhu’anhu)  that her property at Galba should be donated in charity. Hafsah Bint ‘Umar (radiyallāhu’anha)   had no children from the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam).

Hafsah Bint ‘Umar (radiyallāhu’anha), lived with the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)  in Al-Madinah for eight years, and lived on for another thirty-four years after his death; witnessing with joy the victories and expansion of Islam under her father's guidance, and with sorrow the troubles that beset the Muslim community after the murder of 'Uthman. She passed away during the reign of Mu'awiyyah bin Abu Sufyan in 47 AH at the age of sixty-three.

5. Zainab binti Khuzaimah (radiyallāhu’anha).

Zainab binti Khuzaimah (radiyallāhu’anha) was from Bani Hilal bin ‘Amir Bin Sa’sa’ah and was nicknamed Ummul-Masakin because of her caring and kindness. Her husband, ‘Abdullah bin Jash (radiyallāhu’anhu) was killed at Uhud. The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) married her Ramadhān the 4th year of Hijrah but she died shortly. [Tabaqaat Ibn Sa’d]

6. Umm Salamah Hind binti Abi Umaiyah (radiyallāhu’anha).

Umm Salamah (radiyallāhu’anha)  was married to the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)   in the 4th year of Hijrah when her husband Abu Salamah diedMuslim narrated that Umm Salamah (radiyallāhu’anha)  said: I heard the Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)   say: “There is no person who is faced with a calamity and says Inna Lillahi wa inna ilaihi rāji’un, Allāhumma ujurni fi musibati w'ukhluf li khairan minha [Truly, to Allāh we belong and truly, to Him we shall return; O Allāh, reward me in this calamity and compensate me with something better than it]) but Allāh will reward him in his calamity and will compensate him with something better than that.”

According to a report when Abu Salamah died, Umm Salamah said: Who is better than Abu Salamah, the companion of the Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)? But Allāh decreed that I should say it. Then I got married to the Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam).

7. Zainab binti Jahsh bin Riyab (radiyallāhu’anha).

Zainab binti Jahsh (radiyallāhu’anha)  was the Prophet’s cousin, who was married to Zaid bin Harithah (radiyallāhu’anhu), an orphan slave whom the Prophet liberated and then adopted. The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) proposed Zainab with Zaid to her brother, but he refused to let his sister, a noble girl of Hashimite and Quraishite ancestry and the first cousin of the Prophet, to be the wife of a former slave. The Arabs regarded such union as a great shame, for the daughter of the aristocracy to marry the slaves and even to freed slaves. The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) sought to wipe out these distinctions. He wanted to educate the world that no one is superior to any non-Arab unless it is in virtue and piety, as God had said,

“Indeed, the most honorable among you in the sight of God is the most god-fearing.” [Qur’ān  49:13]

The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)   did not choose to force this principle on a woman outside his own tribe. It was his cousin Zainab binti Jahsh (radiyallāhu’anha)  who, in complying with the Prophet’s wishes for Zaid bin Harithah (radiyallāhu’anhu), willingly opposed the Arabian custom. And Zaid bin Harithah, an orphan under his care, was the person of too low a lineage for marriage into Makkans aristocracy in her family’s eyes. Thus, the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)   encouraged Zainab to agree to marry Zaid bin Harithah (radiyallāhu’anhu), and, when Zainab agreed, insisted that her brother accept the adopted orphan as a brother-in-law.

However, after the marriage, Zaid bin Harithah (radiyallāhu’anhu) found it hard to live with her. Zaid bin Harithah (radiyallāhu’anhu) consulted the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)   who advised him not to divorce her. Nevertheless, once all attempts to work out the marriage had failed, divorce was the only alternative left. After the divorce, she and her relatives insisted that the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)   marry her. Feeling bound to meet their wishes after a failed marriage that he had arranged, the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)   was hesitant. The pagan custom allowed marrying step-mothers and mothers-in-law, but looked upon the marriage of the divorced wife of an adopted son as unacceptable. To undo the custom and to set an example, God commanded the hesitant Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)   to marry Zainab.

Zainab binti Jahsh (radiyallāhu’anha)  was married to Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)   in Dzul-Qaedah 5th Hijrah. She was from Bani Assad bin Khuzaimah and was the Messenger’s paternal cousin. She was married to Zaid bin Harithah (radiyallāhu’anhu) who was then considered as a son of the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam). Zaid bin Harithah (radiyallāhu’anhu) divorced her, Allāh sent down a revelation, says:

“So when Zaid had accomplished his desire from her [i.e. divorced her], We gave her to you in marriage, so that [in future] there may be no difficulty to the believers in respect of [the marriage of] the wives of their adopted sons when the latter have no desire to keep them [i.e. they have divorced them]” [Surah Al-Ahzab 33:37]

Zainab binti Jahsh (radiyallāhu’anha)  used to boast about this to the other wives of the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam), saying: “Your families arranged your marriages but Allāh arranged my marriage from above the seven heavens.”[Al-Bukhari].

Zainab binti Jahsh (radiyallāhu’anha)  died ten years after the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam).

8. Juwairiyyah binti Al-Harith (radiyallāhu’anha).

Juwairiyyah binti Al-Harith (radiyallāhu’anha)  fell prisoner to the Muslims during the battle of Banu’l-Mustalaq, and she came to the Prophet Sallallāhu 'alaihi wa sallam) to ask him to help her to manumit herself and buy her freedom. He offered to buy her freedom and marry her, and she accepted it. The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)   married her and made her manumission her dowry. When the people came to know of that, they set free their own prisoners, so as to honour the in-laws of the Messenger (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam). No woman brought a greater blessing to her people than she did. [Serah Ibn Hisham, 3/408-409].

The fifth year of Hijrah was a year full of major events. During its second half, the Muslims were busy fighting the coalition of the tribes that rallied against them in an attempt to impede the spread of Islam.

Muslims dug a trench around Al-Madinah to defend it against the enemies outside. But a greater danger was facing them from inside, that of the Jewish tribes who breached the peace treaty. After defeating the Parties, the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)   rallied the Muslims against the Jewish tribe of Banu An-Nader first. They blockaded their fortress for twenty-five days but later they surrendered. Then the Muslims set off towards the tribe of Banu Al-Mustaliq who were gathering forces to fight them.

The two armies met at a watering well called Al-Muraisik. A fierce battle took place which ended with a heavy defeat of Banu Al-Mustaliq. Most of their fighters were killed and their women were taken captives. Their leader, Al-Harith Ibn Dhirar, escaped, but his daughter, Barrah, fell to the hands of the Muslims captive. The daughter of Al-Harith fell to the lot of Thabit Ibn Qais.

‘Aishah (radiyallāhu’anha)  who accompanied the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) on this expedition, related: "When the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)   distributed the captives of Banu Al-Mustaliq, she [Barrah] fell to the lot of Thabit Ibn Qais (radiallāhu‘anhu). She was married to her cousin, who was killed during the battle. She gave Thabit a deed (document), agreeing to pay him for her freedom. She was a very beautiful woman. She captivated every man who saw her. She came to the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)   to ask for his help in the matter. As soon as I saw her at the door of my room, I took a dislike to her, for I knew that he would see her as I saw her. She went in and told him who she was, the daughter of Al-Harith Ibn Dhirar, and the chief of his people. She said: 'You can see the state to which I have been brought. I have fallen to the lot of Thabit, and have given him a deed for my ransom, and I have come to ask your help in the matter.' He (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)   said: 'Would you like something better than that? I will discharge your debt, and marry you.' She said: 'Yes, O Messenger of Allāh!' 'Then it is done.' He (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)   replied." [Ahmad]

This was the event that turned Barrah's, later named Juwairiyyah by the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam). For not only Juwairiyyah accepted Islam, but by accepting the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)   for her husband and thus became Umm Al-Mu'minin [Mother of the Believers].

The news of the marriage spread fast and now that Banu Al-Mustaliq was the Prophet's relatives by marriage, the Muslims freed them from their captives. "The relatives of the Messenger of Allāh!" They exclaimed. A hundred families were released from captivity because of this blessed marriage. Said ‘Aishah: “I do not know a woman who was a greater blessing to her people than she."

Juwairiyyah binti Al-Harith (radiyallāhu’anha) was a woman of exceptional beauty, and because she belonged to the highest class of her society, she acquired the best upbringing and education that was available during her time. She was twenty years old when the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)   married her. No doubt, she was the source of jealousy for his other wives but this did not prevent them from appreciating her good character and companionship.

When the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)   went back to Al-Madinah after that raid [on Banu Al-Mustaliq], with Juwairiyyah and was at a place called 'Thatul-Jaish', he (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)   entrusted her to one of the Ansar. Her father, Al-Harith, discovered that she had been captive and went back to Al-Madinah, bringing his daughter's ransom. When he reached Al-'Aqeq [a place near Al-Madinah], he looked at the camels he had brought as her ransom and admired two of them greatly, so he hid them in one of the passes of Al-'Alee. Then he came to the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)   dragging the camels behind him, and told him (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam): "My daughter is too noble to be taken as a captive. Set her free by this ransom." The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)   replied: "Isn't it better that we let her choose for herself?" "That is fair enough," said Al-Harith. He came to his daughter and said: "This man is letting you choose so do not dishonor us!" "I choose the Messenger of Allāh," she replied calmly. "What a disgrace!" he exclaimed.

The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)   then said: "Where are the two camels which you have hidden in Al-'Aqeq in such-and such a pass?" Al-Harith exclaimed: "I bear witness that there is none worthy of worship but Allāh, and that you Muhammad are the Messenger of Allāh! For none could have known of this but Allāh." He and his two sons who were with him and some of his men accepted Islam. The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)   asked him again for his daughter's hand and he accepted. The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)   gave his new bride four hundred Dirhams as her dowry.

Juwairiyyah binti Al-Harith (radiyallāhu’anha) accepted Islam wholeheartedly and followed the excellent example of her husband in the worship of her Lord, trying to even compete with him at times. He left her room once for Fajar [dawn prayer] and came back after Dhaka [forenoon]: "I spent all the time you were absent supplicating," she told him. He said: "Shall I tell you a few words, if you say them they will be heavier in the scale [on the Day of Judgment] than what you have done? You say: 'Subhana Allāhi 'adada khalqih, subhana Allāhi ridha nafsihi, subhana Allāhi zinata 'arshihi, subhana Allāhi midada kalimatih." [Exalted and Praised is Allāh as many times as the number of His creatures, and as much as pleases Him, and as much as the weight of His Throne, and as much as the ink for His Words]. [At-Tirmidzi]

Juwairiyyah binti Al-Harith (radiyallāhu’anha) spent her life in seclusion after the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)   passed away. The Caliphs would provide for her sustenance, but she would spend it all for the sake of Allāh. She performed Hajj many times, and was known for her passionate worship.

Juwairiyyah binti Al-Harith (radiyallāhu’anha) kept away from all the trials that raged later during her life. She died during the caliphate of Mu’awiyah at the age of sixty five, some forty years after the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam).

9. Umm Habibah Ramlah binti Abi Sufyan (radiyallāhu’anha).

Abu Dawud narrated Umm Habibah Ramlah binti Abi Sufyan was married to ‘Ubaidallāh ibn Jahsh, who became a Christian and died in Abyssinia. Then the Negus married her to the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)   and gave her a mahr of four thousand on his behalf, and sent her to the Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)  with Shurahbil ibn Hasanah in 7th Hijrah.

10. Safiyyah binti Hawaii ibn Akhtab (radiyallāhu’anha).

Safiyyah binti Hawaii (radiyallāhu’anha)  was from the children of the Israel. Safiyyah, daughter of a Jewish chief of Banu Nadir, was taken as a prisoner in the Battle of Khaibar in the year 7 A.H. The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)   liberated and then married her. Upon marriage, the Prophet f (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)   found marks of abuse on her cheek about which he was curious. She explained: “I saw a dream in which the full moon rose over Medinah and fell in my lap. I told the dream to my cousin who slapped me and said, ‘You want to marry the king of Medinah!’ This mark is from his slap.”

When the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)   was on his deathbed, Safiyyah binti Hawaii (radiyallāhu’anha)  wept and said, ‘I wish I could be in your place, O Messenger of God,’ to which he (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)   replied, “She means what she says.”

11. Maimunah binti Al-Harith (radiyallāhu’anha).

Maimunah binti al-Harith, (radiyallāhu’anha)  married the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)   in 7 AH, when the Prophet was sixty years old and she was thirty six years old. Maimunah's sister, Umm al-Fadl Lubaba, (radiyallāhu’anha)  was the mother of Abdullah ibn Abbas, (radiyallāhu’anhu)  the son of one of the uncles of the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) and the one of the wisest of his Companions. Umm al-Fadl (radiyallāhu’anha) was one of the earliest Companions of the Prophet. Once Abu Lahab, the enemy of Allāh and the Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam), entered the house of his brother, al-‘Abbas, and proceeded to attack ‘Abbas’ male servant, Abu Rafi, because he had embraced Islam.Abu Lahab knocked him to the ground and knelt on him, continuing to beat him. Umm al Fadl (radiyallāhu’anha) grabbed a post that knocked Abu Lahab's head, saying, "Will you victimize him because his master is absent?" Abu Lahab was treated in shame and died a week later.

Zainab binti Khuzaimah, (radiyallāhu’anha)  Umm al Muminin, was also her half-sister. Her other sisters included Asma bint Umais, the wife of Ja’far ibn Abi Talib (radiyallāhu'anhu), who later married Abu Bakar As-Siddiq (radiyallāhu’anhu), and Salma bint Umays, the wife of  Hamzah, the "Lion of Allāh". Her full sisters were Lubaba, Asma and Izza.

Maimunah binti al-Harith, (radiyallāhu’anha)   was thus one of the 'Ahlul-Bayt’, 'The People Of The House', not only by virtue of being a wife of the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)    but also because she was related to him. Zaid bin Arqam related that the Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)   said, "I implore you by Allāh! The People of my House!" three times. Zaid was asked who the People of the House were, and he said, "The family of Ali ibn Abi Talib, the family of Ja’far ibn Abi Talib, the family Aqil ibn Abi Talib, and the family of Al-‘Abbas ibn Abdal Muttalib."

Maimunah or Barra as she was then called yearned to marry the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam). She went to her sister, Umm al Fadl to talk to her about that and she, in turn, spoke to her husband, al-‘Abbas. Al-‘Abbas (radiyallāhu’anhu) immediately went to the Messenger (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)   with Maimunah's offer of marriage to him and her proposal was accepted. When the good news reached her, she was on a camel, and she immediately got off the camel and said: "The camel and what is on it is for the Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)." They were married in the month of Shawwal in 7 AH just after the Muslims of Medinah were permitted to visit Makkah under the terms of the Treaty of Hudaibiyah to perform umrah. Allāh Almighty sent the following ayat about this:

“Any believing woman who dedicates herself to the Prophet if the Prophet wishes to wed her, that is only for thee and not for the believers”. [Surah Al-Ahzab, 33:50]

The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)   gave her a new name, Maimunah, meaning "blessed", and Maimunah (radiyallāhu’anha)  lived with the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)   for just over three years, until his death. Maimunah (radiyallāhu’anha) was obviously very good natured and got on well with everyone, and no quarrel or disagreement with any of the Prophet's other wives have been related about her. 'Aishah (radiyallāhu’anha) said about her: "Among us, she had the most fear of Allāh and did the most to maintain ties of kinship." It was in her room that the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) first began to feel the effects of what became his final illness and asked the permission of his wives to stay in Aishah's room while it lasted.

After the Prophet's (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) death, Maimunah (radiyallāhu’anha) continued to live in Medinah for another forty years, dying at the age of eighty, in 51 AH, being the last of the Prophet's wives to die. Maimunah (radiyallāhu’anha) asked to be buried where they had married the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) at Saraf and her request was carried out. It is related that at the funeral of Maimunah, Ibn Abbas (radiyallāhu’anhu) said: "This is the wife of Allāh's Messenger (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) so when you lift her bier, do not shake her or disturb her, but be gentle."

It is also related by Ibn Abbas (radiyallāhu’anhu)  that he once stayed the night as a guest of Maimunah (radiyallāhu’anha), who was his aunt, and the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam). They slept on their blanket lengthways and he slept at the end, crossways. After they had all slept for awhile, the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) rose in the middle of the night to performed Solat Tahajjud, and Ibn Abbas (radiyallāhu’anhu) joined him. They both did wudhu', and he performed solat eleven rak’ats with the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam). Then they both went back to sleep again until dawn. Bilal (radiyallāhu’anhu) called the adzan, and the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) did another two short raka’ats, before going into the mosque to lead the Solat Fajar.

Ibn ‘Abbas (radiyallāhu’anhu) said that one of the du’a' that the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)   made during this night was:

"O Allāh, place light in my heart, light in my tongue, light in my hearing, light on my sight, light behind me, light in front of me, light on my right, light on my left, light above me and light below me; place light in my sinew, in my flesh, in my blood, in my hair and in my skin; place light in my soul and make light abundant for me; make me light and grant me light."[Muslim]

It is commonly agreed that it was after the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) had married Maimunah binti al-Harith, (radiyallāhu’anha)   , giving him now nine wives ['Aishah, Sawdah, Hafsah, Umm Salama, Zainab, Juwayriyyah, Umm Habibah, Safiyyah and Maimunah), that the following ayat was revealed:

“It is not lawful for you [O Muhammad, to marry more] women after this, nor to exchange them for other wives, even though their beauty is pleasing to you, except those whom your right hand possesses [as maid servants]; and Allāh is always watching over everything.” [Surah Al-Ahzab, 33:52]

After this, the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)   did not marry again. When however, the Christian ruler, or Muqawqis, of Egypt, sent him two Christian slave girls who were sisters as a gift [in response to the Prophet's letter inviting him to embrace Islam], along with a fine robe and some medicine. The Prophet, (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)   accepted one of the slave girls, Maria, into his household; he gave her sister Serene, to a man whom he wished to honor, namely Hassan ibn Thabit; he accepted the robe; and he returned the medicine with the message, "My Sunnah is my medicine!" This occurred in 7 AH, when the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)   was sixty years old and Maria was twenty years old.

12. Maria Al-Qibtiyyah (radiyallāhu’anha).

Everyone gave Maria Al-Qibtiyyah the same title of respect as the Prophet's wives, 'Umm al Muminin' 'Mother of the Believers'. Maria was born in Upper Egypt of a Coptic father and Greek mother and moved to the court of the Muqawqis, King of Alexandria when she was still very young. She arrived in Medinah to join the Prophet's (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)   household just after the Prophet returned from The Treaty Al-Hudaibiyah with Quraish.

Maria Al-Qibtiyyah (radiyallāhu’anha) gave birth to son in 9 AH, the same year that his daughter Zainab died, and the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)   named his new son Ibrāhim, after the ancestor of the Jews and the Christians, the Prophet from whom all the Prophets who came after him were descended. Unfortunately, when he was only eighteen months old, Ibrahim became seriously ill and died. Even though he knew that his son would go to the Garden, the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)   could not help shedding some tears. When some of his Companions asked him why he was weeping, he (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)   replied: "It is my humanness."

As Ibrahim's body was being buried, the sun was eclipsed and it grew dark and gloomy. Some people thought this was connected with Ibrahim's death, but the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)   soon clarified: "The sun and the moon are two of Allāh's signs; they are not eclipsed because of anyone's birth or death. When you see these signs, make haste to remember Allāh in prayer."

Although the kafirun used to mock the Prophet Muhammad (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)   because he had no sons, and say that he was 'cut off’, Allāh made it clear in the following surah that the station of the Prophet Muhammad (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)   was far above that of any other man: “Surely We have given you AL Khawthar, so pray to your Lord and offer sacrifice. Surely he who mocks you is the one cut off.” [Surah Al-Kawthar, 108:1-3]

“Muhammad is not the father of any man among you, but he is the Messenger of Allāh and the Seal of the Prophets and Allāh has knowledge of all things.”[Surah Al-Ahzab, 33:40]

Maria Al-Qibtiyyah (radiyallāhu’anha)  was honored and respected by the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)   and his family and Companions. She spent three years of her life with the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam), until his death, and died five years later in 16 AH.

For the last five years of her life, Maria Al-Qibtiyyah (radiyallāhu’anha)   remained a recluse and almost never went out except to visit the grave of the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)   or her son's grave. After her death, ‘Umar ibn al Khattab (radiyallāhu’anhu)  led the prayer over her and she was buried in al Baqi.

Muslim is Required to Respect the Family of the Prophets

Abdullah ibn Mughaffal said that the Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)   said: "Allāh, Allāh, and my Companions! Do not make them a target after me. Whoever loves them, it is by my love that he loves them. Whoever hates them, incurs my hate by doing so. Whoever harms them has harmed me. Whoever harms me has harmed Allāh. Whoever harms Allāh is about to b e seized." (At- Tirmidzi)

The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)   said, "Do not curse my Companions. Whoever curses them, the curse of Allāh and the angels and all people is on him. Allāh will not accept any recompense or counterweight from him."

The Prophet also (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)   said, "Do not curse my Companions. A people will come at the end of time who will curse my Companions. Do not join them and do not join with them and do not marry with them and do not sit in their assemblies and if they are ill, do not visit them."

The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)   also stressed that cursing and harming them harmed him. It is haram to harm the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam). He (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: "Do not harm me in respect of ‘Aishah." He said about Fatimah: "She is part of me. What harms her harms me."

The best known position with respect to speaking ill of the Companions is that adopted by the school of MālikMālik said, "Whoever reviles the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) is to be killed. Whoever reviles his Companions should be disciplined." Qadi Ayad also wrote: It is related from Mālik that anyone who curses Abu Bakar is flogged whereas anyone who curses ‘Aishah is killed. He was asked, "Why is that?" He said, "Whoever attacks her has opposed the Qur’ān ." Ibn Shaba related this from Mālik because Allāh has said: "Allāh wishes that you should never repeat the like of it again if you are believers." (24:18); so whoever does repeat the like of it has disbelieved.

And may the blessings and peace of Allāh be upon the Prophet Muhammad, and on his family and his Companions, and on all who follows him and them in what they are able with sincerity, until the Last Day. AMIN!

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