Tuesday, May 1, 2007

The Conquest of Makkah in 8H.

Makkah Goes Muslim
(The liberation of Makkah)

By Adil Salahi

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful;
All the praise and Thanks is due to Allāh, the Lord of al-‘ālameen. I testify that there is none worthy of worship except Allāh, and that Muhammad, Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam is His Messenger.

Description: At the end of the 7th year of the Hijrah or in January, 630 CE, the Quraish and their allies, the Bani Bakar, violated the Hudaibiyah Treaty attacking the Bani Khuza’ah, the alliance of the Muslims. The Bani Khuza’ah appealed to the Prophet (Sallāhu ‘alayhi wassalam) for help. The Prophet (Sallāhu ‘alayhi wassalam) moved to stop the reign of terror in Makkah and gathered an army of 10,000 and marched to Makkah.

Nothing attracts people to a faith more than seeing with their own eyes that that faith can build a better society than their own. Violating their peace treaty with Prophet Muhammad, (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam), the Quraysh themselves drove the final nail in their coffin as they provided valid reason for Muslims to get their hands on Makkah.

As the Peace Agreement Of Al-Hudaybiyah signed by the two sides stipulated that all tribes were free to join or to be in alliance with either side, Arabian tribes felt that they would incur nobody’s anger if they listened to Muhammad (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) and paid thoughtful consideration to his faith. As far as the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) and the Muslims were concerned, this was a remarkable achievement. After all, no sound idea required more than objective consideration in order to be accepted. If this applies to human ideas, it is particularly applicable to the true faith based on the oneness of God.

The agreement signed between the two sides was a decisive moral victory for the Muslims. The Qur’an describes it as “a clear victory” that for the first time they were able to address people with their message without having to contend with the fear those people had of the Quraysh.

And, as history shows, the advocates of false beliefs fear nothing more than a situation where they have to come face to face with the true faith under fair rules. Moreover, nothing attracts people to a faith more than seeing with their own eyes that that faith can build a better society than their own. Both factors came into play when the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) and his companions(radiyallahu’anhum)  offered their compensatory Umrah. For three days the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) and his companions were in Makkah, talking freely to its inhabitants, who were the relatives of many of the Muslims.

Such conversations took place in a relaxed atmosphere. The people of the Quraysh were also seeing the type of society Islam built in Madinah. They realized how the ties of brotherhood, love and mutual compassion Islam made among its followers were very real indeed. Thus, this was bound to bring about a change in the attitude of individuals from the Quraysh towards Islam.

The net result of the events of those seven years since the emigration of Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) from Makkah was that the structure which the Quraysh represented started to crumble from within. After all, its foundation was far from solid, its motives were highly questionable and the ties between its different classes were those of mutual fear and apprehension. In comparison, the Muslim society in Madinah was a shining example of what a human society can and should be, if it is built on a proper foundation.

The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) realized that the tide was going against the Quraysh. He was absolutely confident that it was only a matter of time before the Quraysh would give up the fight to suppress Islam. He had no doubt whatsoever in the truth of his message and he was absolutely certain that Islam would continue to spread and move forward. Islam was already winning the hearts of more and more people and this was the most valuable of gains. Hence, the Quraysh realized that things were not going their way.

At that time, the Quraysh represented the forces of evil. They are normally groping in the dark for anything which could keep them from falling. What they normally come up with is something stupid and counter-productive. It is generally counter-productive because, ill-considered as it is, it tends to play into the hands of the other side. What happens afterwards is that it accelerates the resolution of the confrontation.

Violation of The Treaty

Those events took place nearly two years after the signing of Al-Hudaybiyah Peace Agreement. Although what triggered those events was something relatively minor, nevertheless it represented a blatant violation of the peace agreement. That peace agreement stipulated that Arabian tribes were free to make alliances with either side. The terms of the peace agreement applied to those allies in the same way as they applied to the main participants. The tribe of Bakr joined the Quraysh camp by way of a formal alliance, while the tribe of Khuza’ah entered into an alliance with the Muslims.

These two tribes were at conflicts before the advent of Islam. Although hostilities ceased between them a few years before the signing of Al-Hudaybiyah Peace Agreement, they still harbored ill feelings towards each other. A branch of the Bakr tribe known as the Banu of Dayl had a score to settle with the Khuza’ah. Their leader, Nawfal ibn Mu’awiyah, felt that the truce obtained in Arabia as a result of the peace agreement offered him a chance to settle that score. He, therefore, marched at the head of a large force from his clan and launched a surprise raid against the Khuza’ah as their men were gathering at a water spring called Al-Watir.

Fighting broke out and the Khuza’ah were forced to retreat killing a good number of their men. Moreover, the Quraysh gave them a helping hand. They supplied them with arms and some Qurayshi men took part in the actual fighting alongside the Banu Bakr. Hence the peace agreement was violated not only by the Banu Bakr, but also by the Quraysh.

When the Quraysh actively supported their allies, Banu of Bakar, in their aggression against the Banu of Khuza’ah who were allied to the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam), they did not give much thought to the consequences of their treachery. Little did they realize that news travelled fast and that the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) would inevitably come to hear of the Quraysh’s indefensible action. When the excitement was over, the enormity of what they had done stared them in the face. They realized that for a petty gain they had put themselves in a position where they could incur grave losses.

Some of the Quraysh suggested that it was necessary for them to act quickly in order to avert any possible campaign of revenge which might be launched by the Muslims. They, therefore, sent their leader, Sakhr ibn Harb,  more commonly known as  Abu Sufyan, to Madinah ostensibly to negotiate a revision of the peace agreement, making it valid for a longer period.

Abu Sufyan ibn Harb was the chieftain of the Banu Abd-Shams clan of the Quraysh tribe, which made him one of the most powerful in Makkah.

The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) had expected all that. When he ascertained that the Quraysh had lent active support to the attackers of his allies, he told his companions that he expected Abu Sufyan to come to Madinah with the pretext of improving the terms of the peace agreement. It was only a short time before Abu Sufyan made his appearance in Madinah.

Like any guilty person who plans to hide his guilt by appearing to do something good, Abu Sufyan ibn Harb was worried lest his efforts should come to nothing. He, therefore, thought of enlisting the support of someone in the Prophet’s own household. The person was Abu Sufyan’s own daughter by his wife āfiyah bint Abi Al-‘As, Umm Habibah (Ramlah), whom the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) had married a couple of years earlier.

Abu Sufyan entered her room and, behaving like any father in his daughter’s house, proceeded to sit down on the Prophet’s mattress. Umm Habibah was faster than him, she folded the mattress and took it away. It was taken by surprised, Abu Sufyan asked: “I am not quite sure, child, whether you think that I am above sitting on your mattress or that it is too good for me.” She put it to him quite frankly: “It is the mattress of God’s Messenger and since you are an idolater you are impure. Hence, I do not like you to sit on the mattress of God’s Messenger (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam).”

That was a totally unexpected blow for Abu Sufyan ibn Harb. He could not have imagined that his own daughter would humiliate him in this way. He said: “I am certain some harm has befallen you since you left me, daughter.”

This is an example of how dear the Prophet Muhammad (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) was to the Muslims: dearer than their own parents or children. Such a relationship was totally incomprehensible to the unbelievers.

Abu Sufyan ibn Harb left his daughter’s room nursing that severe blow. He went into the mosque where he met the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam). He said to him: “Muhammad, I have come to ask you to confirm our peace agreement and to validate it for a longer period.”

The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) asked him: “Is this what you have come here for? Have you perpetrated any trouble? Abu Sufyan hastened to deny any knowledge of any breach of the peace agreement and said: “We are abiding by our peace agreement of Al-Hudaybiyah. We strictly observe its terms.” The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) did not say anything further to him and Abu Sufyan’s attempt to enter into a dialogue with the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) was in vain.

Abu Sufyan ibn Harb then went to meet many companions (radiyallahu’anhum) for the same request but to no avail. When he returned to Makkah he reported to his people the frustration of his efforts and Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) refusal to come to any terms of peace, they chastised him for accepting such humiliation as they became more obsessed about the fate of their city.

In Readiness

When some time had passed after the departure of Abu Sufyan ibn Harb, the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) told his wife Aishah (radiyallahu’anha) to prepare his fighting equipment. Aishah started to prepare food as well. Her father, Abu Bakar As-Siddiq (radiyallahu’anhu), came in and when he saw what she was doing he asked her why she was preparing that sort of food, but she did not reply. He asked whether the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) wanted to mount a fresh expedition, but Aishah (radiyallahu’anha) remained silent.

Abu Bakar (radiyallahu’anhu) went on questioning her and asked whether the Prophet’s aim was the Byzantines, or the people of Najd, or, indeed, the Quraysh. Aishah (radiyallahu’anha) did not answer any of these questions. At that point, the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) came in and Abu Bakar (radiyallahu’anhu) put the same questions to him and the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) confirmed that his target was the Quraysh. Abu Bakar (radiyallahu’anhu) mentioned the peace agreement and the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) told him that they had breached it. The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) had thought deeply about the Quraysh’s action. He could not find any excuse for giving them the benefit of the doubt. Theirs was a most flagrant violation of the peace treaty. Hence, they had to pay a heavy price for it. If they were allowed to get away with such a violation, they would soon be thinking of another way to get at the Muslims. Action needed to be taken without delay. The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam), however, started his preparations quietly. Even his closest advisers were not initially informed of his purpose.

The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) indeed did not inform anyone of his impending expedition, but he ordered his companions to get ready.

The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) wanted to take the Quraysh by surprise, and employed all means to ensure that they would not receive intelligence of his impending departure. Moreover, as he was the most perfect of believers, he prayed God to help make his precautions effective so that the Muslims could take the Quraysh by surprise.

Prophet of Mercy

When the Muslims had completed their preparations, the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) marched at the head of an army which was very large by Muslim standards; it was indeed the largest army ever raised, between 10,000 and 12,000 men - under the Prophet’s leadership. They had not marched far before they met Al-‘Abbas ibn Abd Al-Muttalib (radiyallāhu’anhu), the Prophet’s uncle. Al-‘Abbas had all his family with him. They all came to join the Muslims.

Shortly afterwards, the Muslim army when camped at al-Abwa they met two men from the Quraysh who had come to join the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam). Those were Abu Sufyan ibn Al-Harith ibn Abd Al-Muttalib and ‘Abdullah ibn Abu Umayyah. The two were relatives of the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam). Abu Sufyan ibn Al-Harith had been his cousin and playmate in childhood, but when the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) received his message, Abu Sufyan chose to be very hostile to him and attacked him in his poetry.

‘Abdullah ibn Abu Umayyah had been very abusive to the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) in the past, despite the fact that his mother was the Prophet’s aunt.The abuse of near relatives is especially painful. Hence, the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) was not keen to meet either of these two men. When they approached him, he refused to receive them.

Umm Salamah, one of the Prophet’s wives, tried to mediate on the Quraysh men’s behalf. She said to the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam): “Allah’s Messenger, they are your own cousins and kinsfolk.” Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) replied: “I have no need of them. My cousin defamed me, and my aunt’s son was the one who said what you know in Makkah.”

When they were informed of what the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said, they felt themselves to be in a very bad position. They did not know what to do. Abu Sufyan ibn Al-Harith, who had his son with him, said: “If he will not receive me, I will take this son of mine by the hand and we will both wander through the land until we die of starvation and thirst.” ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib (radiyallāhu’anhu), who was a cousin of both the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) and Abu Sufyan, gave the latter sound advice. ‘Ali (radiyallāhu’anhu) told him to approach the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) directly, face to face, and use the same words as Joseph’s brothers spoke to him when they recognized him: “Indeed, God has granted you a better status than ours, and we have indeed been in the wrong.” ‘Ali  (radiyallāhu’anhu) told him that the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) would not like that anyone else should give a better answer than his own in similar circumstances. Abu Sufyan ibn Al-Harith did as he was advised and the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) answered with the same answer Prophet Joseph gave to his brothers: “No blame shall be attached to you this day. May God forgive you. He is indeed the most merciful.” Thus, Abu Sufyan ibn Al-Harith and his relative were rehabilitated. Abu Sufyan ibn Al-Harith immediately started to use his poetic talent in the service of Islam and the advocacy of its cause. These two incidents reveal one side of the Prophet’s character: he was the most loyal and forgiving of people.

Abu Sufyan ibn Al-Harith ibn Abd Al-Muttalib said:

“Eventually Allāh opened my heart to Islam. I got up and said to my servant, Madhkur: 'Get ready a camel and a horse for us.' I took my son Ja’far with me and we galloped with great speed towards al-Abwa between Makkah and Madinah. I had learnt that Muhammad had camped there. As I approached the place, I covered my face so that no one could recognize and kill me before I could reach the Prophet and announce my acceptance of Islam directly to him.”

On the Way to Makkah

The Muslim army under the Prophet’s leadership started its march towards Makkah on the 10th day of Ramadhan in the 8th year of the Islamic calendar. Muslims from various tribes joined the army in large numbers with all the Muhajirin and the Ansar responding to the prophet’s call and joining up. None of them was left behind.

When the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) reached a place called Asafan, not far from Madinah, he asked for a jug of water. When it was brought to him, he raised it so that he was seen by as many people as possible and drank during the day so that his companions (radiyallāhu’anhum) would follow his example and not fast while travelling. Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)  did not fast on any subsequent day until he reached Makkah.

The army continued its march until it reached a place called Marr al-Zahran, not very far from Makkah, where it encamped. It was indeed remarkable that the Quraysh did not receive any intelligence until then of the Prophet’s move. This is owing to the Prophet’s prayer to Allah Almighty just before he embarked on this enterprise: My Lord, let the Quraysh receive no news of us until we take them by surprise in their own land.” Nevertheless, the Quraysh were uneasy. They realized that the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) was bound to take some action. They knew that he was always positive in his attitude to events. He would not stand idle while his allies were treacherously massacred. Hence they were sending people outside to gather information, but the information they received was far from accurate.

The Capture of Abu Sufyan ibn Harb

While riding in the area on the Prophet’s mule, Al-‘Abbas bin Abdul Mutallib, the Prophet’s uncle who had joined him only a few days earlier, heard a conversation between Abu Sufyan ibn Harb, the leader of the Quraysh, and Hakim ibn Hizam and Budayl ibn Warqa’, who went out that night to gather intelligence trying to find some traveler who might have some news or some other information.

Recognized Al-‘Abbas (radiyallāhu’anhu), Abu Sufyan ibn Harb asked him: “What brings you here?” Al-‘Abbas replied: “Matters are grave indeed, Abu Sufyan. This is God’s messenger, (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam), with his people. The Quraysh are doomed indeed.”

Abu Sufyan ibn Harb said: “What can we do, my dear friend?” Al-‘Abbas (radiyallāhu’anhu) said: “I am sure that if he were to take you captive, he would have you beheaded. Mount behind me on this mule and I will take you to Allah’s messenger and ensure your safety.”

Thus Abu Sufyan ibn Harb was now heading towards a face-to-face meeting with the Prophet(Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam), the man he was trying with all his power to defeat. While he was mounting behind Al-‘Abbas (radiyallāhu’anhu) they passed by the fire of ‘Umar ibn Al-Khattab (radiyallāhu’anhu) who said: “Who is it?” and came forward.

Al-‘Abbas (radiyallāhu’anhu) narrates: “When he realized that Abu Sufyan ibn Harb was riding behind me, he said: “Abu Sufyan, God’s enemy. Praise be to God, Who has brought you here with no treaty or promise to save you.”  He ran towards the Prophet’s tent. The mule also started to run and it passed him by a short distance. I dismounted quickly and entered the Prophet’s tent. ‘Umar (radiyallāhu’anhu) came in right behind me and said: “Messenger of Allah, this is Abu Sufyan, Allah’s enemy. Allah has handed him to us with no treaty or agreement to spare him. Allow me to chop his head off.” I interposed: “Messenger of Allah, I have extended protection to him.” I then sat down to speak to the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) and was determined not to allow anyone else to spoil my aim. Apparently, there was some heated discussion between Al-‘Abbas (radiyallāhu’anhu) and ‘Umar (radiyallāhu’anhu) concerning the fate of Abu Sufyan ibn Harb with ‘Umar insisting that he should be executed.

Umar’s attitude was that of a person whose ties and loyalties have been totally remolded by Islam. When the discussion became prolonged, with both Al-‘Abbas (radiyallāhu’anhu) and ‘Umar (radiyallāhu’anhu) insisting on their respective views, the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) ordered his uncle to take Abu Sufyan ibn Harb to his tent, where he was to stay that night, and to bring him back to him in the morning.

Tied Community

Abu Sufyan ibn Harb stayed with Al-Abbas (radiyallāhu’anhu) that night. At dawn, when the Muslim soldiers started making ablutions in preparation for their solat, Abu Sufyan shivered with fear. He asked Al-Abbas (radiyallāhu’anhu) what they were doing. Al-Abbas (radiyallāhu’anhu) explained that they were preparing for solat. When they performed solat, led by the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam), Abu Sufyan watched in amazement as he saw all the Muslims bowing in solat when the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) bowed, and prostrating themselves when he prostrated himself. Abu Sufyan ibn Harb said to his interlocutor: “Al-Abbas, they are always doing his bidding?” Al-Abbas (radiyallāhu’anhu) answered: “Yes, indeed. Were he to bid them to stop eating and drinking, they would obey him.”

Now Abu Sufyan ibn Harb saw with his own eyes, and heard with his own ears, that the Muslims were in no mood to compromise. His head was demanded as an initial payment of the price of the Quraysh’s treachery.  Abu Sufyan witnessed some aspects of the ties which united the Muslim community. Abu Sufyan ibn Harb saw that the Muslims were very happy with their new faith and recognized that God had bestowed on them His grace when He sent Muhammad with His message to them. None of them had any doubts about the justice of their cause. Moreover, love was the predominant sentiment in the Muslim camp. All the Muslims loved one another, and the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) was dearer to any one of them than his own parents or children. Indeed, they loved the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) more than they loved themselves. As Abu Sufyan ibn Harb and Al-Abbas stood at the bottom of the valley to watch the Muslim army marching; Abu Sufyan was highly impressed by their strength. The units and divisions were made according to tribes. Each tribe constituted its own division.

Sure Insight

In their tribal society, which gave infinitely greater importance to honor, it was only natural that those who competed for honors – namely the Quraysh chiefs – would take some time before they accepted the fact that someone else was chosen by God to deliver His message. Abu Sufyan ibn Harb was one of those, and his reluctance to accept that Muhammad was God’s Messenger was the cause of many of the battles recounted in this record of the Prophet’s life.

Al-‘Abbas (radiyallāhu’anhu) realized the sort of thoughts and feelings which were in Abu Sufyan’s mind. Al-‘Abbas (radiyallāhu’anhu) wanted to remind him that his position was untenable unless he accepted the facts as they were. Al-‘Abbas (radiyallāhu’anhu) said to him:

“Come on, man. Declare your acceptance of Islam and make it clear that you believe that there is no deity but God and that Muhammad is God’s messenger, before you are beheaded.”

Abu Sufyan ibn Harb was grateful for the reminder of Al-‘Abbas (radiyallāhu’anhu) and made the declaration which brought him into the fold of Islam. Thus the Quraysh’s leader became a Muslim and it was left to him to try to secure a peaceful outcome of the confrontation. It was clear to him that he must play his role well in order to spare his people a military defeat. The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam), however, made it clear that he still viewed the Quraysh’s treachery very seriously, but he would rather see a peaceful end to the conflict.

Back in Makkah, people were restless, having heard during the night from Abu Sufyan’s two companions that the Muslim army was approaching. They were gathered in groups all over the place when Abu Sufyan ibn Harb, now a Muslim, arrived. As they saw him, they ran to him to enquire what news he brought. Abu Sufyan had no time for long explanations.

Abu Sufyan ibn Harb wanted everyone to understand fully that the fall of Makkah was imminent and that resistance was of no avail. Abu Sufyan  shouted as loud as he could:

“People of Quraysh, Muhammad is approaching at the head of an army for which you are no match. He who enters Abu Sufyan’s house is safe...”

Hind bint Utbah, Abu Sufyan’s own wife, was stunned as she heard his words. She was a woman who had thus far harbored an unabated grudge against the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) and the Muslims ever since her father, brother and uncle were killed at Badr. As long as the two camps continued in their hostility, she would remain prominent among those who advocated a very hard line against the Muslims.

Hind rushed to Abu Sufyan, took hold of his moustache and said: “Kill this good-for-nothing fat man. Confound you as a leader.”

Abu Sufyan was not to be distracted from what he considered to be his most important duty which made him the savior of Makkah. He  said to his people: “Do not let this woman delude you. You are going to face something for which you are no match. He who goes into Abu Sufyan’s house is safe...” He was interrupted here by people saying to him: “Confound you! Of what avail would your house be to us?”

Abu Sufyan continued: “He who enters the mosque is safe, and he who stays in his own home, with his door locked, will be safe.”

The message was absolutely clear. Everyone in Makkah realized its validity. People, therefore, dispersed. Some went to the mosque; the majority went to their homes, while a few went to Abu Sufyan’s home. An air of fear spread through Makkah. The fighters who were held in awe by all the Arabs, before the advent of Islam, were not to be seen. They remained behind closed doors, while those inside the mosque watched with fear in their hearts.

After the conquest of Makkah, Abu Sufyan fought as one of  commanders of  Prophet Muhammad (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)  in the subsequent wars. During the Siege of Taif, he lost an eye. When Prophet Muhammad (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) died in 632, Abu Sufyan was in charge of Najran. Abu Sufyan also fought in the Battle of Yarmouk in 636, in which he lost his second eye. He played a very important role in the war, being the Naqeeb (Chief of Staff) of the Muslim army. He fought under command of his grandson Yazid bin Muawiyah. Abu Sufyan died at the age of ninety in 650 at Medinah. His kinsman ‘Uthman Ibn Affan (radiyallāhu’anhu), who had become the third Caliph in 644, led the prayer over his grave.

And Allāh Almighty knows best.

Adil Salahi is the Executive Director of Al-Furqan Heritage Foundation. He teaches Islamic Studies at the Markfield Institute of Higher Education, Leicester, England. After working for the BBC Arabic Service for several years, he worked for the Arabic daily, al-Sharq al-Awsat. He continues to publish a column, "Islam in Perspective", in its sister publication, Arab News, an English daily published in Saudi Arabia. He has produced an English translation of several volumes of Sayyid Qutb's commentary, In the Shade of the Quran (Leicester, Islamic Foundation), as well as several other books on Islamic subjects.

[Excerpted from “Makkah Goes Muslim: Causes & Morals (Makkah Liberated)” By Adil Salahi, Researcher and writer – UK Via ,On Islam,Wednesday, 23 February 2011

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