Monday, April 9, 2007

The Prophet’s Migration to Medinah.

The Prophet’s Migration to Medinah.

Banu Salleh

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful;
All the praise and thanks is due to Allāh, the Lord of al-‘ālamīn. I testify that there is none worthy of worship except Allāh, and that Muhammad, Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam is His Messenger.

Description: The Pledges Of ‘Aqabah led the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) to encourage his followers to migrate to Medinah. When Prophet Muhammad (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) received the command to leave he left Makkah with Abu Bakar As-Siddiq which begins the era of Islam in Madinah.

The Hijrah

After 13 years of struggle in Makkah, Prophet Muhammad (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) had only around 300 followers, most of who were persecuted some was imprisoned, others were tortured, and had to endure social and economic boycott. However, the truth was bound to appeal the people. The Pledge Of 'Aqabah between Prophet Muhammad (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) and the new Muslims from Medinah gave the support and to defend the religion that make the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) encouraged his followers to migrate to Medinah.

After his companions had left for Yathrib, the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) stayed in Makkah, waiting for permission from Allah to leave the city. Abu Bakar As-Siddiq and ‘Ali bin Abu Talib (radiyallahu’anhum) stayed with him. There were also some Muslims whom Quraysh had not allowed to leave. Abu Bakar As-Siddiq (radiyallahu’anhu) asked the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) to allow him to go to Yathrib, but the Messenger of Allah (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) told him not be in hurry

While Prophet Muhammad (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam), with a few intimates, had been awaiting the divine command to join the other Muslims in Yathrib, the Quraish were furious that a great number of Muslims had migrated to Yathrib and were achieving success. The chiefs of all the Quraish tribes assembled at their council, Darul-Nadwa, to find the course of actions to be pursued. They agreed that the only way to achieve their objective was to assassinate the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam). In order to avoid the repercussion of tribal bloodshed, Abu Jahal, contrived that it should be carried out by stalwarts and young men selected from all the clans, not to be done by only one man.

The Command.

Allah Said:  “And when the unbelievers plot against thee, to confine thee, or kill thee, or to drive thee out, they were plotting, But Allah was (also) plotting; and Allah is the best of plotters.”    (Surah Anfal, 8: 30)

It was while the Quraish were nurturing their plot, Allah commanded Prophet Muhammad (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) not to sleep that night in his bed.

The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) was also told by Jibreal about the Quraish plot and that Allah permitted it was time for him to migrate to Madinah.

The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) covered his head and went out in the hot day to inform  Abu Bakar As-Siddiq (radiyallāhu’anhu)  about Allah’s command to migrate. Abu Bakar was informed and tasked to make the necessary preparations for the journey, after concluding the plan the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) returned home to await for the nightfall.

Shortly after the dusk, all the selected youths of the Quraish laid siege to the house of the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) so that none might come out or go in, and waited for the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) to appear so that they might fall upon him and kill him. In this way they would be rid of him but as the blame for killing him would fall on all the clans, the Prophet's family would not be able to seek revenge.

The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) instructed 'Ali Abu Talib (radiyallahu’anhu) to take his place, cloaked in the green blanket in his bed and assured he would be safe, while the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) would escape. The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) also instructed ‘Ali bin Abu Talib (radiyallāhu’anhu) to leave behind in order to undertake the duty of returning the properties to some people in Makkah which they kept with the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam). 

Divine Miracles

In the dead of night the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) went out of the house and cast a handful of dust at the assassins while walking through them unnoticed, reciting verses of the Qur’ān:

" Ya Sin By the Wise Qur’ān, Thou art truly among those sent On the straight path; A Revelation of the All-mighty, the All-wise, That thou may warn a people whose fathers were never warned, so they are heedless. The Word has already proved true of most of them, yet they do not believe. Lo! We have put on their necks collars of iron up to the chin, so that they are made stiff-necked. And We have put before them a barrier; and We have covered them so they do not see.”   
[Surah Yasin, 36:9]

Refuge in the Cave Thur.

The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) had left his house on Safar 27th, the fourteenth year of Prophethood, corresponding with 12/13 September 622 A.D [Rahmatul-Lil-‘Alamin 1/95]. After leaving the house, the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) himself went to Abu Bakar As-Siddiq (radiyallahu’anhu)  house and left before fajar with him took refuge for three days, from Friday to Sunday, in a cave at Mount Thawr, situated three miles south, out of Makkah in order trick the Quraish. [Ibn Hisham 1/483] Abdullah bin Abu Bakar (radiyallahu’anhu) was entrusted to mingle among the Makkans and reported to them in te cave at night. ‘Amir bin Fuhairah was to shepprd the goats and brought the milk to them.

The assassins who laid siege to the house were waiting for the zero hour but someone came and informed them that the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) had already left. They rushed in and to their surprise, found that the person lying in the Prophet’s bed was ‘Ali bin Abu Talib (radiyallahu’anhu) not Prophet Muhammad(Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam). This escape had created a stir in the whole town. They brought ‘Ali bin Abu Talib (radiyallahu’anhu) to Ka’abah beat him brutally to reveal the secret but to no avail. They went to Asma’ binti Abu Bakar  (radiyallahu’anhu) and Abu Jahal slept her severely until her earring broke up. [Ibn Hisham 1/487].The Quraish of Makkah convened an emergency session to determine the future course of action and explored all areas that could help arrest the two men. They blocked all roads leading out of Makkah and imposed heavy armed surveillance at all potential exits. A price of 100 camels was set upon the head of each one. Horsemen, infantry and skilled trackers scoured the areas around Makkah.

The Quraish even reached the mouth of the cave where the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) and Abu Bakar  (radiyallahu’anhu) were hiding. When Abu Bakar (radiyallahu’anhu) saw the enemy at a very close distance Abu Bakar (radiyallahu’anhu) was afraid and said to the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam): 

“O Messenger of Allah, Were one of them to look down towards his feet, he would see us!”

The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) replied: “What do you think of two people with whim God is the Third? Do not be sad, for indeed God is with us.” [Sahih Al-Bukhari 1/516]

It was such a Divine miracle; the pursuers were only a few steps from the cave, but were unable to find them. It was for three days that Muhammad (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) and Abu Bakar Talib (radiyallahu’anhu) lived in the cave and Quraish continued their frantic efforts and failed to find them.

A man by the name of ‘Abdullah bin Uraiqit, who had not yet embraced Islam, but was trusted by Abu Bakar (radiyallahu’anhu), and had been hired by him as a guide, required to come to the cave after three nights in accordance with their plan. He was tasked to bring with him Abu Bakar’s two camels for the two of them. When it had slackened and the opportunity was suitable to leave, Abu Bakar (radiyallahu’anhu)  would offer the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) a swift ride to Madinah. Abdullah agreed with plan provided that he would be paid with its price. Asma binti Abu Bakar the daughter of Abu Bakar, was given the task to assist in providing them the food provisions that were brought and tied in a bundle of her waistband. [Sahih Al-Bukhari 1/533] 

Departure for Medinah.

The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam), Abu Bakar As-Siddiq and ‘Amir bin Fuhairah, Abu Bakar’s servant departed, and their guide ‘Abdullah bin Uraiquit led them with on untrodden roads along the coastal route, on September 16, 622 A.D [Ibn Hisham 1/491]

The Quraish had offered reward whoever captures Prophet Muhammad (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) he would receive a hundred camels. This spurred many people to try their luck. Among those who were on the lookout for the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) and his companion in order to get the reward was Suraqah bin Malik. He, on receiving information that a party of four, had been spotted on a certain route, decided to pursue them secretly so that he, alone, should be the winner of the reward. Soon after the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) had left the cave he attempted to trace him, and followed him but his horse stumbled on the way and threw him.

Hastily remounting, he continued the chase, but the horse stumbled again, throwing him violently to a considerable distance. Again he remounted and again the horse, this time when his rider was close to the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) and was preparing to shoot an arrow, stumbled and threw him off with great force, its own feet sinking into the sand. "Then," says Suraqah, "it dawned on me that it was pre-ordained that the Prophet's cause should succeed." Renouncing all intention of murder at the behest of this inner voice, he approached the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) and begged his forgiveness. The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) forgave him with a smile, and imparted to him the happy news that one day he would wear the gold bangles of the ruler of Persia. This was a true prophecy of an event which happened twenty-four years later; for these words found fulfillment when the kingdom of the Chosroes of Persia fell to the sword of 'Omar and Suraqa was sent for and decorated with the bangles. [Sahih Al-Bukhari 1/516]

Meeting Umm Ma’bad Al-Khuza’iyah.

One of the Prophet’s stop in his journey was at tents belonging to a woman called Umm Ma’bad Al-Khuza’iyah. She was a gracious lady who sat at her tent-door with a carpet spread out for any traveler that might pass that way. Fatigued and thirsty, the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) and his companions wanted to refresh themselves with food and milk. The lady told them that the flock was out in the pasture and the goat standing nearby was almost dry.

The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) with her permission, touched its udders reciting over them the name of Allah and to his great joy, there flowed plenty of milk out of them. The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) first offered it to the lady of the house and what was left by her was shared by the members of the party. After having refreshed themselves the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) moved further, leaving the encampment of Umm Ma'bad, Prophet Muhammad (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) and his companions resumed their journey, going through unfrequented paths and suffering great hardships on account of scarcity of water and severity of heat.

When Abu Ma'bad, the husband of Umm Ma'bad, returned, the lady narrated to him this strange incident and described the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam). He said: "By God, he is the same man whom the people of al-Quraish are searching for." [Zadul-Maad 2/54]

The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) Reached Quba'.

After traveling for many days on unfrequented paths, The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) and his companions reached a suburb of Yathrib called Quba’ on 8th Rabi’ul-Awwal or Monday, September, 23, 622, the 14th year of Prophetic. Quba' lies at a distance of a few miles from Al-Madinah. It was largely inhabited by Banu Amr bin Awf [an Arabic tribe] who had already been enlightened by Islam. The “Ansar” (Supporters of the Prophet) of Al-Madinah heard that the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) had left Makkah, and hence they been setting out to the local hills every morning, watching for the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) until heat drove them to shelter. The travelers arrived in the heat of the day, after the watchers had retired.

'Urwah Ibn Az-Zubair (radiyallāhu’anhu) said: "Allah's Messenger met Az-Zubair in a caravan of Muslim merchants who were returning from Sham. Az-Zubair provided Allah's Messenger (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) and Abu Bakar with white clothes to wear. When the Muslims of Medinah heard the news of the departure of Allah's Messenger from Makkah, they started going to the Harrah every morning, they would wait for him till the heat of the noon forced them to return. One day, after waiting for a long while, they returned home, and when they went into their houses, a Jew climbed up to the roof of one of the forts of his people to look for something, and he (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) Allah's Messenger and his companions, dressed in white clothes, emerging out of the desert mirage."

The Jew could not help shouting at the top of his voice: 'O you Arabs! Here is your great man whom you have been waiting for!’

The Muslims rushed to their arms and received Allah's Messenger (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) on the summit of Harrah and surrounded all rounds him with great fervor and boundless joy saying:

"O the White Moon rose over us
From the Valley of Wada'
And we owe it to show gratefulness
Where the call is to Allah
O you who were raised amongst us
coming with a work to be obeyed
You have brought to this city nobleness
Welcome! Best call to God's way”

Allah revealed to Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam): “…then verily, Allah is his Maula [Lord], and Gabriel, and the righteous among the believers, and furthermore, the angel are his helpers.” [Surah 66:4]

‘Urwah bin Az-Zubair (radiyallāhu’anhu) said: “The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) turned with them to the right and alighted at the quarters of Bani Amr Ibn Auf, and this was on Monday in the month of Rabi ul Awal. Abu Bakar stood up, receiving the people, while Allah's Messenger sat down and kept silent. Some of the Ansar who came and had not seen Allah's Messenger before began greeting Abu Bakar, but when the sunshine fell on Allah's Messenger and Abu Bakar came forward and shaded him with his sheet, only then the people came to know Allah's Messenger.” [Sahih Al-Bukhari 1/555].

The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) stayed for four days in the house of Khulthum bin Hadm (radiyallāhu’anhu) while Abu Bakar stayed with Habib bin Asaf (radiyallāhu’anhu). He would hold his assemblies in the house of Sa'ad bin Khaithamah (radiyallāhu’anhu) and the people visited him at the same place. During this short stay in Quba', he laid the foundation of a mosque, which is the first mosque ever built after the advent of Islam which was founded on piety.

The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) was still in Quba' when Ali bin Abu Talib (radiyallāhu’anhu) came and joined him. Ali bin Abu Talib (radiyallāhu’anhu) had made this long and arduous journey on foot. While the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) was staying in Quba', ‘Ali bin Abi Talib (radiyallahu’anhu) who had been busy returning the deposits of the people to their rightful owners [in Makkah] as blessed with the honor of joining the Prophet(Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam). He had left Makkah at about the time the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) was leaving the cave of Thawr. But since he was traveling by himself, Ali made his movements during the night and kept himself hidden in the day. The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) avoided busy roads and reached Quba' in eight days, while ‘Ali bin Abi Talib (radiyallahu’anhu) undertook the journey by the well-known routes, but was late by three or four days because of being on foot.

Allah Ordered the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) to Move Madinah.

On the fifth day, Friday, Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) mounted his camel by the Order of Allah along with Abu Bakar As-Siddiq (radiyallāhu’anhu). Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)  called Bani An-Najjar, his maternal uncles to come and accompany him and Abu Bakar to Madinah. Amidst the rode towards Medinah the Madinese had lined his path and cordially greeted him. He halted at a place in the valley of Banu Salim bin ‘Awf and there he performed his Friday prayers with a hundred others. [Sahih Al-Bakhari 1/555]. This was the first Solah Juma’ah of the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) in Al-Madinah and the first time the Friday sermon (Khutbah) was ever delivered.

Anas bin Mālik (radiyallāhu’anhu), a close companion of the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam), said: “I was present the day he entered Medinah and I have never seen a better or brighter day than the day on which he came to us in Medinah, and I was present on the day he died, and I have never seen a day worse or darker than the day on which he died” [Ahmad]

After offering the Solah Juma’ah, the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) mounted his camel. Banu Salim bin Awf approached him and took hold of his she-camel's rein requesting that he stay with them. People of other tribes and localities also came in groups and made the same request. This ended when the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said:

“Leave her, for she is under [Divine] Command. I shall stop where the animal sits down."

The “Ansar” and “Muhajirin” followed the camel on all sides. He set the reins loose and the camel moved ahead slowly. All eyes were focused on the animal, and they were eagerly waiting for it to kneel down. At last the she-camel arrived at the locality of Banu Malik bin An-Najjar and knelt down in a deserted and bare land for a while and then got up and advanced a little, only to turn back and be seated on the same spot again. This time she shook herself and then lay down on her neck wagging her tail. When his camel knelt down, Allah's Messenger (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said:

“This place, Allah willing, will be our abiding place.”

Close to this unpopulated land was the house of Abu Ayub Khalid bin Zaid Ansar (radiyallāhu’anhu). It was his wish to honor his maternal uncles and live among them. Upon that, the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) descended from the camel said: “Which is the nearest of our houses of our kith and kin?”

Abu Ayub Khalid bin Zaid Ansar (radiyallāhu’anhu) said: "Mine, O Allah’s Messenger! This is my house and this is my gate.”

The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said: “Go and prepare a place for our midday rest.” [Sahih Al-Bukhari 1/556]

When individuals from the family were soliciting him to enter their houses, Abu Ayyub (radiyallāhu’anhu) rushed to the spot with his face beaming with joy and took the belongings of the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) to his house. Thus he stayed with him in his house.

The deserted land was had a few date trees, some graves of polytheists and a resting spot for herds of cattle. The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) wanted the mosque and enquired who the owner of this land is. Mu'adh bin Afar responded that the land belongs to two orphan boys, Sahl and Suhail related to him and he was taking care of them; he shall make them agree, for building a mosque. But the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) asserted that he wanted to buy it, and will not take it without paying its price. Abu Bakar (radiyallahu’anhu) made the payment at once.

The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) ordered the date trees to be cut of, the graves leveled, and the construction work of the mosque was started then and there. The walls of the mosque were constructed with stone and clay, the roof with wood and leaves of the date palm. The Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) joined the builders. When the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam)started carrying unburned bricks for its building and while doing so, he was saying:

''This load is better than the load of Khaibar, for it is more pious in the Sight of Allah and purer and better rewardable.''

Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) was also saying: "O Allah! The actual reward is the reward in the Hereafter, so bestow Your Mercy on the Ansar and the Emigrants"' [Sahih Al-Bukhari 1/71, 155; Zadul-Ma’ad 2/56]

The mosque served as a place of worship for Muslims. The prayer which was previously an individual act performed in secret now became a public affair, one which epitomizes a Muslim society. The period in which Muslims and Islam was subordinate and oppressed was over, now the adzān, the call to solah, would be called aloud, booming and penetrating the walls of every house, calling and reminding Muslims to fulfill their obligation to their Creator. The mosque was a symbol of the Islamic society. It was a place of worship, a school where Muslims would enlighten themselves about the truths if the religion, a meeting place whether the differences of various warring parties would be resolved, and an administration building from which all matters concerning the society would emanate, a true example of how Islam incorporates all aspects of life into the religion. All these tasks were undertaken in a place built upon the trunks of date-palm trunks roofed with its leaves.

When the first and most important task was complete, he also made houses on both sides of the mosque for his family, also from the same materials. Until his house was built, the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) continued to live with Abu Ayub Khalid bin Zaid Ansar (radiyallāhu’anhu) for six months. The Prophet’s Mosque and house in Medinah stands today in that very place. It was 23 September 622, begins the day on which this event took place. And from that day on Yathrib had a new name, a name of glory: Madinat-un-Nabi, the City of the Prophet, in brief Medinah. The mosque built during the time of the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) no change before the caliphate of Umar ibn Al-Khattab(radiyallāhu’anhu). During his caliphate, it underwent an expansion for the first time. ‘Uthman bin Affan (radiyallāhu’anhu) strengthened it. During the time of Walid bin Abdul-Malik it  more expansion with the inclusion of the dwellings of the noble wives of the Prophet(Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wasallam).

A few days later the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) sent Zaid bin Harithath and Abu Rafi to bring Fātimah, Umm Kulthum, Sa’udah bint Zam'ah, Usamah bin Zaid and his mother, as well as Umm Aiman . Talha bin Ubaidullah, along with Abdullah bin Abu Bakar, and his relatives, also accompanied them. After the arrival of these people, the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) moved into his newly built home.

The Prophet’s arrived Medinah on 23 September 622 and it is known as Hijrah in the Islamic era, the Muslim calendar, begins the day on which this event took place. And from this day on Yathrib had a new name, a name of glory: Madinat-un-Nabi, the City of the Prophet, in brief Medinah. Such was the Hijrah, the emigration from Makkah to Yathrib. The thirteen years of humiliation, of persecution, of limited success, and of prophecy still unfulfilled were over. The Hijrah makes a clear division in the story of the Prophet’s Mission, which is evident from the Qur’ān. Till then he had only been a preacher. Thenceforth he was the ruler of a State, at first a very small one, but which grew in ten years to become the empire of Arabia. The kind of guidance which he and his people needed after the Hijrah was not the same as that which they had needed before. The Medinah chapters differ from the Makkan chapter. The latter give guidance to the individual l and to the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) as Warner: the former give guidance to a growing social and political community and to the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) as example; lawgiver; and a reformer.

And Allāh Almighty Knows best.

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