Unity and Brotherhood
In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful;
All the praise and Thanks is due to Allāh, the Lord of al-‘ālamīn. I testify that there is none worthy of worship except Allāh, and that Muhammad, Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam is His Messenger.
As a yardstick and criterion in our lives, Islam has given us a clear definition of unity and brotherhood and how it can be realized and implemented. The uniting factor is the `Aqīdah (creed) of Islam which defines the belief of a Muslim. Unlike other bonds (nationalistic, patriotic, etc.) which are superficial, animalistic, reactive, emotional, and completely devoid of a real solution for life’s affairs, the intellectuality of the ideological bond of Islam unites man irrespective of their race, nationality, and other factors which are irrelevant when it comes to bonding on an ideological creed.
Unity in Islam as the Mu’minūn
Allah in the Qur’an describes what unity in Islam as the Mu’minūn (Believers; those that believe in Allah and His Messenger Muhammad) being united in a Brotherhood based on solely Islam:
“The Mu’minūn are but a single Brotherhood.” (Al-Hujurat, 49:10)
Equality and Brotherhood
“O Mankind! We have created you from a single soul, Male and Female, And We made you into nations and tribes, that ye may recognize each other. Verily, the most honoured of you in the sight of Allah Is the greatest of you in taqwa (piety). Allah is All-Knowing, All-Aware.”
Muslims Are Awliyyā’ (Allies, Friends, and Supporters) Of One Another
Allah further defines this Brotherhood by explaining that Muslims are awliyyā’ (allies, friends, and supporters) of one another and this again is based solely on Islam:
“The Believers, men and women, are protectors one of another: they enjoin the ma`rūf (all of Islam), and forbid the munkar (all that is evil; kufr): they observe regular prayers, pay Zakat, and obey Allah and His Messenger. On them will Allah pour His mercy: for Allah is Exalted in power, Wise.” (Al-Tawbah, 9:71)
Al-Bukhari recorded that Prophet Muhammad (Sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam) indicated in several Ahadith on unity and brotherhood as we can witness in his Farewell Sermon (Khutbat ul-Wadā`):
“All mankind is from Adam and Eve, an Arab has no superiority over a non-Arab nor a non-Arab has any superiority over an Arab; also a white has no superiority over black nor does a black have any superiority over white except by piety and good action. Learn that every Muslim is a brother to every Muslim and that the Muslims constitute one brotherhood.”
Other Ahadith further elaborate on the concept of unity and brotherhood:
"A Muslim is the brother of another Muslim. He does not oppress him, nor does he leave him at the mercy of others." (Sahih Muslim Book 032, Number 6219)
The Prophet (Sallallāhu `alayhi wa sallam) said, "None of you will have faith till he wishes for his (Muslim) brother what he likes for himself." (Sahih Al-Bukhari Volume 1, Book 2, Number 12)
As the teachings of Islam clearly show us that Brotherhood and unity in Islam are based solely on the `Aqīdah of Islam (which is the foundation of Muslim belief). The Mu’minūn are believers to one another and this belief has nothing to do with race or any other type of invalid reason to unite but is rather a bond based on an ideological belief in Islam.
Abu Musa Al-Ash’ari (radiyallāhu`anhu) narrated:
The Prophet (Sallallāhu `alayhi wa sallam) said, “A believer to another believer is like a building whose different parts enforce each other.” The Prophet (Sallallāhu `alayhi wa sallam) then clasped his hands with the fingers interlaced. (At that time) the Prophet (Sallallāhu `alayhi wa sallam) was sitting and a man came and begged or asked for something. The Prophet (Sallallāhu `alayhi wa sallam) faced us and said, “Help and recommend him and you will receive the reward for it, and Allah will bring about what He will through His Prophet's tongue.”
[Muslim Volume 8, Book 73, Number 55]
Narrated An-Nu'man bin Bashir (radiyallāhu`anhu): Allah's Messenger (Sallallāhu `alayhi wa sallam) said, "You see the believers as regards their being merciful among themselves and showing love among themselves and being kind, resembling one body, so that, if any part of the body is not well then the whole body shares the sleeplessness and fever with it." [Muslim Volume 8, Book 73, Number 40]
Abu Hurairah (radiyallāhu`anhu) narrated: Allah's Messenger (Sallallāhu `alayhi wa sallam) said, "Anybody who believes in Allah and the Last Day should not harm his neighbor, and anybody who believes in Allah and the Last Day should entertain his guest generously and anybody who believes in Allah and the Last Day should talk what is good or keep quiet. (i.e. abstain from all kinds of evil and foul talk). [Sahih Muslim Volume 8, Book 73, Number 47]
It Is Not Permissible To Forsake A Muslim.
“And obey Allah and His Messenger, and do not dispute (with one another) lest you lose courage and your strength departs, and be patient. Surely, Allah is with those who are As‑Sabirun (the patient)”
“And hold fast, all of you together, to the Rope of Allah (i.e. this Qur’an), and be not divided among yourselves, and remember Allah’s Favour on you, for you were enemies one to another but He joined your hearts together, so that, by His Grace, you became brethren (in Islamic Faith), and you were on the brink of a pit of Fire, and He saved you from it. Thus Allah makes His Ayat (proofs, evidences, verses, lessons, signs, revelations, etc.,) clear to you, that you may be guided”
[Al ‘Imran, 3:103]
It was narrated that Abu Hurayrah (radiyallahu`anhu) said: The Prophet (sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam) said: “Do not hate one another, do not envy one another, and do not turn away from one another. Be, O slaves of Allah, brothers. It is not permissible for a Muslim to forsake his brother for more than three days.”
[Narrated by al-Bukhari, 6065; Muslim, 2559]
Abu Ayyub al-Ansari (radiyallahu`anhu) said: The Prophet (sallallahu 'alayhi wa sallam) said: “It is not permissible for a Muslim to forsake his brother for more than three days, each of them turning away when they meet. The better of them is the one who gives the greeting of salam first.”
[Narrated by al-Bukhari, 2757; Muslim, 2560].
Reconciling Between People Particularly Muslim Is One Of The Noblest Of Attitudes.
Allah says: “So fear Allah and correct all matters of difference among you, and obey Allah and His Messenger (Muhammad), if you are believers”
“There is no good in most of their secret talks save (in) him who orders Sadaqah (charity in Allah’s Cause), or Ma‘ruf (Islamic Monotheism and all the good and righteous deeds which Allah has ordained), or reconciliation between mankind; and he who does this, seeking the good Pleasure of Allah, We shall give him a great reward”
And Allāh Almighty Knows best.