Friday, January 18, 2008

Dua' al-Qunut During Solah

Dua' al-Qunut during Solah
Sheikh Muhammed Salih Al-Munajjid

A question was asked whether that the Qunut (raising hand after ruku’) in Solat was the practice of Prophet (sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam) or was it exceptional as the situation arouses. The amir of our masjid said Prophet (sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam) once asked which of the solat is best; He (sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam) replied the one which has longer Qunut.

In the Name of Allāh, Most Gracious, Most Merciful;
All praise and thanks are due to Allāh, May Allāh blessings and peace be upon His Messenger.

Dua' al-Qunut, according to the definition of the fuqaha’, “is the name of a dua' (supplication) offered during prayer at a specific point while standing.” It is prescribed in Witir prayer after the ruku’ (bowing), according to the more correct of the two scholarly opinions.

If a calamity (nazilah) befalls the Muslims, it is prescribed to say Dua' al-Qunut Nazilah after standing up from ruku’ in the last raka’ah of each of the five daily obligatory prayers, until Allah relieves the Muslims of that calamity.

(Tasyiih al-Du’aa’ by Shaikh Bakar Abu Zaid, p. 460).

With regard to saying Dua' al-Qunut in Fajar prayer all the time, in all circumstances, there is no sahih report that the Prophet (sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam)  singled out Fajr for Qunūt, or that he always recited it in Fajar prayer. Rather what is proven is that he (sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam) said Dua' al-Qunut at times of calamity with words that were appropriate to the situation. He said Dua' al-Qunut in Fajar and in other prayers, praying against Ra’l, Dhakwan and ‘Usaiyah for killing the Qur’an-readers whom the (sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam) had sent to them in order to teach them their religion. And it was proven that he prayed in Fajar prayer and other prayers for the weak and oppressed believers, that Allah would save them from their enemies. But he did not do that all the time. The Rightly-Guided khalifahs after him followed the same practice. It is better for the imam to limit Qunut to times of calamity, following the example of the Messenger of Allah (sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam), as it was proven that Abu Malik al-Asya’ari said: “I said to my father, ‘O my father, you prayed behind the Messenger of Allah (sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam)  and behind Abu Bakar, ‘Umar, ‘Uthman and ‘Ali (radiallāhu`anhum). Did they used to say Dua' al-Qunut in Fajar?’ He said, ‘O my son, this is a newly-invented matter.’” [(Narrated by the five, apart from Abu Dawud; classed as sahih by al-Albani in al-Irwa’, 435].
The best of guidance is the guidance of Muhammad (sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam).

And Allah is the Source of strength. May Allah send blessings and peace upon our Prophet Muhammad (sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam).and upon his family and companions (radiallāhu`anhum).

[Al-Lajnah al-Da’imah li’l-Buhuth al-‘Ilmiyyah wa’l-Ifta’, 7/47]

If you ask, whether there is a specific wording for Qunut during Witir prayer or Qunut at times of calamity?

The answer is: for Dua' al-Qunut in Witir prayer a number of wordings have been narrated, including the following:

1. The version which the Messenger of Allah (sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam) taught to al-Hasan ibn ‘Ali (radiallāhu`anhu), which is:

“Allāhumma ihdini fīman hadayta wa ‘aafini fīman ‘āfayta wa tawallani fīman tawallayta wa bārik li fīma a’tayta, wa qini sharra ma qadayta , fa innaka taqdi wa la yuqda ‘alayk, wa innahu lā yadhillu man wālayta wa lā ya’izzu man ‘ādayta, tabārakta Rabbana wa ta’ālait la munji minka illa ilaik"

(O Allah, guide me among those whom You have guided, pardon me among those whom You have pardoned, turn to me in friendship among those on whom You have turned in friendship, and bless me in what You have bestowed, and save me from the evil of what You have decreed. For verily You decree and none can influence You; and he is not humiliated whom You have befriended, nor is he honoured who is Your enemy. Blessed are You, O Lord, and Exalted. There is no place of safety from You except with You).
(Narrated by Abu Dawud, 1213; al-Nasa’ie, 1725; classed as sahih by al-Albani in al-Irwa’, 429).

It was narrated from ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib (radiallāhu`anhu) that the Prophet (sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam)  used to say at the end of Witir:

“Allahumma inni a’ūdzu bi ridāka min sakhatika wa bi mu’āfaatika min ‘uqūbatika wa a’ūdzu bika minka, la uhsi thana’an ‘alayka anta kama athnaita ‘ala nafsika"
(O Allah, I seek refuge in Your pleasure from Your wrath and in Your forgiveness from Your punishment. I cannot praise You enough; You are as You have praised Yourself.)

[Narrated by al-Tirmidzi, 1727; classified as sahih by al-Albani in al-Irwa’, 430; Sahih Abi Dawud, 1282].

Then he should send blessings upon the Prophet (sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam) as it was narrated that some of the Sahabah (radiallāhu`anhum)– including Ubayy ibn Ka’ab and Mu’adh al-Ansāri (radiallāhu`anhum) – did that at the end of Qunut al-Witir.

[See Tasyiih al-Du’a by Shaikh Bakar Abu Zayd, p. 460].

2. Qunut at times of calamity (Qunut al-Nazilah)

When praying Qunut at the time of calamity, one should make supplication as is appropriate to the situation, as it was narrated that the Prophet (sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam) cursed some Arab tribes who had betrayed his companions and killed them, and he prayed for the weak and oppressed believers in Makkah, that Allah would save them. It was narrated that ‘Umar (radiallāhu`anhu) prayed Qunut with the following words:

"Allahumma inna nasta’eenuka wa nu’minu bika, wa natawakkalu ‘alayka wa nuthni ‘alayka al-khayr, wa laa nakfuruka. Allaahumma iyyaaka na’budu wa laka nusalli wa nasjudu, wa ilayka nas’aa wa nahfid. Narju rahmataka wa nakhsha ‘adhaabaka, inna ‘adhaabaka al-jadd bil kuffaari mulhaq. Allahumma ‘adhdhib il-kafarata ahl al-kitaab alladheena yasudduuna ‘an sabeelika"

(O Allah, verily we seek Your help, we believe in You, we put our trust in You and we praise You and we are not ungrateful to You. O Allah, You alone we worship and to You we pray and prostrate, for Your sake we strive. We hope for Your mercy and fear Your punishment, for Your punishment will certainly reach the disbelievers. O Allah, punish the infidels of the People of the Book who are preventing others from following Your way).”

[Narrated by al-Baihaqi, 2/210; classified as sahīh by al-Albani in al-Irwa’, 2/170. Al-Albani said: This was reported from ‘Umar concerning Qunut in Fajar, and it seems that this Qunut is Qunut al-Nazilah (Qunut at times of calamity) as is indicated by his praying against the kuffar].

If you ask, can we make du’a using words other than those mentioned here?

The answer is:

Yes, that is permissible. Al-Nawawi said in al-Majmu’ (3/497): “The correct view which was stated definitively by the majority of scholars is that there are no specific words, rather any dua’ may be said.”

The version narrated from ‘Umar is not something that we have to follow, and the Prophet (sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam) did not pray using these words, so there is nothing wrong with adding more to them. Shaikh al-Albani (may Allah have mercy on him) said: “There is nothing wrong with adding more to this, cursing the infidels and sending blessings upon the Prophet (sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam), and praying for the Muslims.”

(Qiyam Ramadan by al-Albani, 31).

We still have an important question which is: should Du’a al-Qunut be said before ruku’ (bowing) or after?

The answer is: Most of the hadith and the opinion of most of the scholars state that Qunut comes after ruku’, but if you say Qunut before ruku’ that is acceptable. So you have the choice of doing ruku’ when you have finished reciting Qur’an, then standing up and saying “Rabbana wa laka al-hamd” then saying Qunut… or saying Qunut when you have finished reciting Qur’an, then saying “Allahu akbar” and bowing. Both of these were narrated in the Sunnah.

[Shaikh Muhammad ibn ‘Othaimeen (may Allah have mercy on him), al-Sharh al-Mumti’, 4/64]

Note: The questioner says that the best of prayer is that which has longer Qunut. Perhaps he is referring to the hadith narrated by Muslim (1257) from Jabir (radiallāhu`anhu) which says that the Prophet (sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam) said: 

“The best of prayer is tool al-qunut (the longest in standing).”

Al-Nawawi said: “What is meant by qunut here is the standing, according to the consensus of the scholars, as far as I know.”

So the hadith is not referring to Qunut in the sense of the dua’ said after standing up from ruku’, rather it is referring to standing for a long time.

And Allah knows best.

[Excerpted from Islam Q&A]

No comments: