Tuesday, November 1, 2011

The Final Tashahhud

The Final Tashahhud

The Solāh of the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alaihi wa sallam)
By Shaikh Muhammad Nasiruddin Al-Albāni
[The book was translated by Usama Ibn Suhaib Hasan Al-Brittani; it would be worthwhile to revisit it and I invite you to provide inputs]

In the name of Allāh, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful;
All the praise and Thanks are due to Allāh, the Lord of al-ā’lamīn. There is none worthy of worship except Allāh, and that Muhammad, Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam is His Messenger.

The Description of the Solāh
2.13. The Final Tashahhud

The Obligation of this Tashahhud

Next, after completing the fourth raka'ah, Rasulūllāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) would sit for the last tashahhud. He would instruct regarding it, and do in it, just as he did in the first tashahhud, except that "he would sit mutawarrikan" [249], "with his left upper thigh on the ground, and both his feet protruding from one (i.e. the right) side." [250] "He would have his left foot under his (right) thigh and shin" [251], "his right foot upright" [252] or occasionally "he would lay it along the ground." [253] "His left palm would cover his (left) knee, leaning heavily on it." [254] [see diagram - qss]
It is known as Tashahhud because it includes The Shahādah.

Ibn Hajar Asqalani in his Fathul Bari recorded that Ibn Masud (radiallāhu 'anhu) said, “It is incumbent in Solāt to say Tashahhud, then say Salawāt upon Rasulūllāh (Sallallāhu alayhi wa sallam) followed by do’a for himself”. Imām Shafie, Ahmad and some Maliki scholars concurred with it.

Rasulūllāh (Sallallāhu alayhi wa sallam) taught the way say the Tashahhud ; set the example of sending Salawāt on him  in the tashahhud; the ways of sending Salawāt on him (Sallallāhu alayhi wa sallam)as recorded previously in the section of The First Tashahhud.

 The Obligation of Sending Salawat upon Rasulūllāh
(Sallallāhu alayhi wa sallam) in this Tashahhud

Once, " Rasulullah (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) heard a man supplicating in his prayer without glorifying the majesty of Allāh Exalted, nor sending prayers on the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam), so he said: This man has been hasty." He then called him and said to him and others, "When one of you prays, he should begin with the praise of his Lord, Sublime and Mighty, and his exultation, and then send prayers (in one narration: he should send prayers) on the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam), and then supplicate as he wishes." [255]

Also, "Rasulullah (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)heard a man glorifying and praising Allāh, and sending prayers on the Prophet (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam)in solat, so the Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said to him: Supplicate, and you will be answered; ask, and you will be given." [256]
Dua after the Tashahhud and before Taslīm

The Obligation to Seek Refuge from Four Things before Supplicating

Abu Hurairah (Radiallāhu‘anhu) reported the Prophet (Sallallāhu'alayhi wa sallam) said, "When one of you has finished the [last] Tashahhud, he should seek refuge with Allāh from four things; [saying]:

“Allāhumma inni a ‘uzubikamin ‘azabijahannam, wamin ‘azabilqabr, waminfitnatilmahya wal-mamāt, waminsyarri [fitnati] al masihid dajjāl”

(O Allāh! I truly seek refuge with You] from the punishment of Hellfire, and from the punishment of the grave, and from the trials of living and dying, and from the evil [trials] of the False Christ)

Then he should supplicate for himself with what occurs to him." [257] - "He (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) would supplicate with it in his own tashahhud." [258]

Also, “Rasulūllāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) used to teach the Companions (radiallāhu'anhum) this the way he taught them Surahs of the Qur’an." [259]

Various types of Supplication before the Salām

Rasulūllāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) used to use different supplications in his prayer [260], supplicating with different ones at different times; he also endorsed other supplications, and "ordered the worshipper to select of them what he wishes." [261] They are:

1. “Allāhumma inni a ‘uzubikamin ‘azâbiilqabr, wa a ‘uzubikamin fitnatilmasihiddajjal, waminfitnatilmahya wal-mamat, Allāhumma inni a ‘u zubika minalmausami wal maghram”.
"O Allāh! Truly I seek refuge with You from the punishment of the grave, and I seek refuge with you from the trials of the False Christ, and I seek refuge with You from the trials of living and dying. O Allāh! Truly I seek refuge with You from sin [262] and burden [263]." [264]

2. "Allāhumma inni a ‘uzubikamin syarrima ‘amiltu, waminsyarri lam amal [ba’du]"
Allāh! truly I seek refuge with You from the evil of what I have done, and from the evil of what I have not done [265] [yet]. [266]

3. “Allāhumma hasibni hissāban Yasīyra”
(O Allāh! Call me to account with an easy reckoning.) [267]

4. “Allāhumma bi‘ielmikalngaib, waqudratika ‘aliyalkhalqi, ahyiniy ma ‘alimtal hayatakairannli, watawaffanai izakanatil wafatu khairanliy,

Allāhumma wa asaluka fialazngaibi wasshahadah, wa asaluka kalimatalhaq [hukmi], wal ‘adlafingadabiwarrado, wa asalukalqasdadafiyalfaqriwalnghina, wa asaluka naie’man layabidu, wa asalukaqurata ie’nin [latanfazu, wa] latanng-qatie’, wa as alukarradū’, wa asaluka bardal ‘aiesyiba’dalmaūt, wa asalukalazzatannazhiriila wajhika, wa [asaluka] syawqailaliqaika, fingairidorrain madhirrah, walafitnatinmudhillah,

Allāhumma zaiyanna bizi natiliman, waj ‘alna hudan muhtadīn”
(O Allāh! [I ask you], by Your knowledge of the Unseen, and Your control over the creation: give me life as long as You know that life is best for me, and take me when death is best for me.

O Allāh! I also ask of You fear of You, in secret and in open; I ask of You the word of Truth (in one narration: Wisdom) and justice in anger and in pleasure; I ask of You moderation in poverty and affluence; I ask of You joy which does not fade; I ask of You pleasure [which does not pass away, nor that] which ceases; I ask of You contentment with Your decree; I ask of You coolness of life after death; I ask of You the delight of looking towards Your Face; and [I ask of You] eagerness towards meeting You, not in harmful adversity, nor in misleading afflictions.

O Allāh! Adorn us with the decoration of Eman, and make us those who guide and are guided). [268]

5. The Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alaihi wa sallam) taught Abu Bakar As-Siddiq (radiallāhu‘anhu) a Duā’ Seeking Allāh’s Forgiveness and Mercy to be Recited in the Solāh (after the Tashahhud):

“Allāhumma inni dzalamtu nafsizulman kathira, walyaghfiruzzunnu ba illa anta, faghfirliy maghfirliy maghfiratan min ‘iendik, warhamni innaka antalnghafururrahim”.
(O Allāh! Indeed I have wronged myself greatly, and none can forgive sins except You, so forgive me out of Your forgiveness, and have mercy on me. Truly, You are the Oft- Forgiving, the Most Merciful.) [269]

5.1. Rasulūllāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) used to Say:
“Ya Muqallibal-qulubi, thabbit qalbi ‘ala dīnik” (O Controller of the hearts makes my heart steadfast in Your religion).'' [At-Tirmidzi] or “Allāhumma musarrifal-qulubi, sarrif qulubana ‘ala ta ‘atik” (O Allāh! Controller of the hearts, direct our hearts to Your obedience).''[Muslim] 

6. Rasulūllāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) instructed 'Aishah (radiallāhu'anha) to say:

 “Allāhhummainni as alukaminalkhiikullihi [‘ajilihi waa jilihi] ma ‘alimtu minhu wama lam ‘alam, waa`uzubika minassharankullih, [‘ajililihi waajilihi] ma ‘alimtu minhu wama lam ‘alam,
[Allainni asluka] aljannata wama qarrabailayha min qauliaw ‘amal, waa ‘uzubika minannar waqarraba ilaiha minqawliaw ‘amal,
waasaluka (Allāhuminni asaluka) mina [al] khairimasaalak ‘abduka warasuluka [Muhammad, Waa‘uzubikaminsyarama ista ‘azakamin ‘abduka warasuluka Muhammadun sall Allāhu ‘alayhi wassallam], [Waasaluka] ma qadaita liy min amrin antaj`ala ‘aqibatuhu [liy] rushda”

(O Allāh! Indeed I ask of You all Good, [the imminent and the far-off,] that of it which I know and that which I do not know. I seek refuge with You from all Evil, [the imminent and the far-off,] that of it which I know and that which I do not know.

I ask of You (in one narration: O Allāh! indeed I ask of You) the Garden, and whatever saying or deed which brings one near to it; I seek refuge with You from the Fire, and (from) whatever saying or deed which brings one near to it.

I ask of You (in one narration: O Allāh! Indeed I ask of You) [the] good of what was asked of You by Your slave and messenger [Muhammad; and I seek refuge with You from evil of what Your slave and messenger Muhammad (Sallallāhu`alayhi wa sallam) sought refuge with You].

[I ask of You] that whatever You have decreed for me, its result [for me] be beneficial) [270]

7. Rasulūllāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said to a man, what do you say during the prayer? He replied, "I bear witness (i.e. do the tashahhud), then I say:  “Allāhumma inni as aluka al-jannah wa a ‘udzu bika min al-nār” (O Allāh, I ask You for Paradise and seek refuge in You from the Fire). However, by Allāh, there is no murmuring [271] as good as yours or that of Mu ‘adz." So Rasulūllāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) said, Our murmuring is like yours. [272

8. Rasulūllāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) heard a man saying in his Tashahhud:

“Allāhumma inni asaluka Ya Allāh [billah] [alwahid] Allāhus-Sāmad, Allazi lamyalid walamyulad walamyakunlahu kufuwan ahad, an taghfir liya zunu biy innaka antal ngafururahīm”.
(O Allāh! Indeed I ask of You, O Allāh (in one narration: by Allāh), the One, the Only, the Absolute, Who begets not and nor is He begotten, and there is none like Him, that You forgive me my sins; indeed You are the Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful).

On this, he (sallallāhu'alayhi wa sallam) said, He has been forgiven, he has been forgiven. [273]

9. Rasulūllāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) heard another man say in his tashahhud:

“Allāhuma inni asaluka bi anna lakal-hamd, Lāillā hailla anta [wahdakalasyarikalaka], [almanna], [Ya] badi ‘assamawatiwal ard, Yazaljalaliwalikram, Yahaiyu yaq1aiyum [inni asaluka] [aljannata wa au’ zubika minannar]”
(O Allāh! Indeed, I ask of You, by the fact that to You belongs all Praise; there is no (true) god except You, [You alone, You have no partners;] the Bestower of Favours; [O] Originator of the Heavens and the Earth; O One that is Full of Majesty and Honour; O Living One, O Eternal One; [indeed I ask of You] [the Garden, and I seek refuge with You from the Fire])

[So the Prophet (Sallallāhu'alayhi wa sallam) said to his Companions, Do you know with what he has supplicated? They said, "Allāh and His Messenger know best." He (Sallallāhu'alayhi wa sallam) said, By Him in Whose Hand is my soul,] he has supplicated Allāh with His Mighty (in one narration: Mightiest) name [274], with which if He is supplicated, He Answers, and with which if He is asked, He Gives. [275]

The Concluding Du‘ā

 The last Du‘ā Rasulūllāh (Sallallāhu ‘alayhi wa sallam) say before the Taslim would be:

“Allāhummaghfirli maqaddamtu, wama akhkhartu, wama asrartu, wama’alantu, wama asraftu, wama anta ‘alamubihinni minni, Antal-Muqaddimu, wa antalmakhiru, Lāillāha illa anta”
(O Allāh! Forgive me what I have done in the past, and what I will do in the future, and what I have concealed, and what I have done openly, and what I have exceeded in, whatever You know about more now than I. You are the Bringer-Forward, and You are the Delayer, there is no (true) god except You.) [276]


Finally, The Prophet (Sallallāhu 'alayhi wa sallam) would salute to his right and left.



And Allāh Knows Best


Footnotes

249. Bukhari.
250. ibid. As for two-rak`ah prayers such as Fajar, the Sunnah is to sit muftarishan. This difference in detail is documented from Imam Ahmad; cf. Ibn Hani's Masa'il of Imam Ahmad (p. 79).
251. Abu Dawud; Bayhaqi with a sahih sanad.
252. Muslim; Abu `Awanah.
253. ibid.
254. ibid.
255. Ahmad, Abu Dawud, Ibn Khuzaimah (1/83/2) and al-Hakim, who declared it sahih and Dhahabi agreed.
It should be known that this hadith proves that salaah (sending prayers) on the Prophet (sallAllāhu `alaihi wa sallam) in this tashahhud is obligatory, due to the command about it. This opinion was taken by Imam Shafi’e and by Imam Ahmad in the later of the two narrations from him and before them by several Companions, as well as other people of knowledge. Because of this, Ajuri said in Shari’ah (p. 415): "He who does not send prayers on the Prophet (sallallaahu `alaihi wa sallam) in the final tashahhud must repeat the prayer." Hence, those who label Imam Shafi’ie as being alone and odd in his opinion on this, are not being just, as the faqih Haithami has explained in Darr al-Mandub (sections 13-16).
256. Nasa'ie with a sahih sanad.
257. Muslim, Abu `Awanah, Nasā’ie; Ibn al-Jarud in al-Muntaqa (27). It is given in Irwa' (350).
258. Abu Dawud and Ahmad: sahih sanad.
259. Muslim and Abu `Awānah.
260. We have not said, "... in his tashahhud" because the text is "... in his solat", not specifying either tashahhud or anything else. Hence, it covers all positions suitable for supplication, e.g. sujud and tashahhud; the instruction to supplicate in these two postures has been mentioned.
261. Bukhāri; Muslim. Athram said, "I asked Ahmad: 'With what (words) should I supplicate after tashahhud?' He said, 'As has been narrated.' I said, 'Didn't the Messenger of Allāh (Sallallāhu `Alayhi Wa Sallam) say, "Then he should select whichever supplication he likes”?' He said, 'He should select out of what has been narrated.' I repeated the question: he said, 'From what has been narrated'." This was quoted by Ibn Taymiyyah (Majmu` al-Fatawa 69/218/1), who endorsed it, adding, "Hence, 'whichever supplication' refers to the supplications which Allāh loves, not to any supplication ...” later he said, "Hence, it is best to say: (one should supplicate) with the approved, established supplications, and these are what have been narrated and those that are beneficial." This is so, but to recognise which supplications are indeed beneficial depends on authentic knowledge, and this is rarely found among the people, so it is best to stick to the supplications quoted, especially when they include what the worshipper wishes to request. Allāh Almighty Knows best.
262. Ma’tham: the causes a man to sin, or the sin itself.
263. Maghram: burden; here it means debt, as proved by the rest of the hadith, in which `Aishah said, "Someone said to him, `Why do you seek refuge from maghram, so often, O Messenger of Allāh?' He replied, truly, when a man becomes indebted, he speaks and lies, and he promises and breaks his promise.
264. Bukhāri; Muslim.
265. i.e. from the evil of the bad actions I have done, and from the evil of not doing good actions.
266 Nasā’ie with a sahih sanad and Ibn Abi 'Asim in his as-Sunnah (no. 370 - with my checking); the addition is from the latter.
267. Ahmad and Hakim who declared it sahih and Dhahabi agreed.
268. Nasā’ie and al-Hakim who declared it sahih and Dhahabi agreed.
269. Bukhāri; Muslim.
270. Ahmad, Tayalisi, Bukhāri in al-Adab al-Mufrad, Ibn Majah and Hākim who declared it sahih and Dhahabi agreed. I have given its takhrij in Silsilah al-Ahādīth as-Sahihah (1542).
271. Dandanah: to speak such the intonation is audible, but the words are incomprehensible - in the case, the quiet words of supplication. The final statement means, "Our words are like yours."
272. Abu Dawud, Ibn Mājah; Ibn Khuzaimah (1/87/1): a sahih isnād.
273. Abu Dawud, Nasā’ie, Ahmad; Ibn Khuzaimah; Hākim declared it sahīh and Dhahabi agreed.
274. This is tawassul (a seeking of approach) to Allāh through His most beautiful names and attributes, and this is what Allāh the Exalted commands: "To Allāh belong the most beautiful names, so call on Him by them." (A`raf, 7:180). As for seeking to approaching Allāh through other things, e.g. for so-and-so's sake, or by so-and-so's right, status, dignity, etc., there is text from Imam Abu Hanifah (rahimahullāh) and his companions that such a practice is at least disliked (makrūh); in general it is prohibited (harām). Therefore, it is a pity that one sees most of the people, among them many sheikhs, totally neglecting the approved tawassul - you will never hear them approaching Allāh this way - but they are well-versed in innovated forms of tawassul, which are at the very least debatable, as though no other way is allowed! Shaikh-ul-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah has composed an extremely good essay on this subject entitled Tawassul and Wasilah ("Approaching Allāh, and the Means of doing so"), which should be consulted, for it is very important, and there is little to compare with it in its coverage. There is also my article Tawassul - its types and its rules, which is also important in its subject-matter and format, and also refutes some of the latest misconceptions advanced by contemporary doctors of religion. May Allāh Guides us on the right path.
275. Abu Dawud, Nasā'ie, Ahmad, Bukhāri in al-Adab al-Mufrad, Tabarāni; Ibn Mandah in Tawhid (44/2, 67/1, 70/1-2): sahih isnāds.
276. Muslim and Abu ‘Awānah.

[Via The Qur'an and Sunnah Society]

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